## SYNOPSIS

bamg *options* -g *input*[.bamgcad] -o *ouput*[.bamg]

## EXAMPLE

Generate the mesh of a square **]1,1[^2** with a mesh size
**h=0.666** at all vertices. Enter the unix command:

bamg -g toto.bamgcad -o toto.bamgThe geometry in defined in the

**square.bamgcad**file:

MeshVersionFormatted 0 Dimension 2 Vertices 4 -1 -1 1 1 -1 2 1 1 3 -1 1 4 Edges 4 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 3 4 1 4 hVertices 0.666 0.666 0.666 0.666The file starts with vertices, coordinates and identifier. Then come the boundary edges, using vertices identifiers and defining a boundary edge identifier.

## OUTLINE

This software can

**1) create**- a mesh from a geometry
**2) adapt**- a mesh from an existing background mesh using a metric or a solution file.
**3) metric build**- just build a metric file, e.g. if you have an other mesher .
**3) quality improve**- of an existing mesh, by generating a new mesh.
**5) interpolate**- a field from one mesh to another.

## 1) CREATE

Create a mesh from a geometry. Example:

bamg -g toto.bamgcad -o toto.bamg

**-g***filename*-
the input file, specifying tghe geometry boundaries of the domain
to mesh (bamg file format
**DB mesh**). **-o***filename*-
the output mesh file (bamg file format
**DB mesh**). Some alternatives output file formats are supported with some**-oXY**options where**XY**is one of the supported output file formats (see below). In addition, optional parameter can be added to specify a metric or the quality improvement. All the options are described below.

## 2) ADAPT

Adapt a mesh from a background mesh using a metric or solution file. Example:

bamg -b toto_bgd.bamg -Mbb toto_bgd_sol.bb -o toto_new.bamg

**-b***filename*-
the input background mesh, where the file suffixe defines the format of the file:
**.amdba**,**.am_fmt**,**.am**,**.ftq**,**.nopo**. Otherwise the file is the bamg default**BD mesh**file format. **-Mbb***filename***-MBB***filename***-M***filename*-
The input metric file.
The
**-Mbb**or**-MBB**specifies the solution file from which the metric is automatically computed, where the file is of type**bb**or**BB**(see file format below). An alternative is to specify directly the metric with the**-M**option (file format**Metric**). **-o***filename*-
the output mesh file (bamg file format
**DB mesh**). Some alternatives output file formats are supported with some**-oXY**options where**XY**is one of the supported output file formats (see below). In addition, optional parameter can be added to control the metric generation and the quality improvement. All the options are described below.

## 3) METRIC BUILD

Construct a metric file for an existing mesh and with a provided solution. This option can be used without generating a new mesh, e.g. if you have an other mesher.

bamg -r toto_bgd.bamg -Mbb toto_bgd_sol.bb -oM toto_bgd.metric

**-r***filename*-
The input mesh file (bamg format
**DB mesh**). **--Mbb***filename***--MBB***filename*-
The input provided solution,
where the file is of type
**bb**or**BB**(see file format below). **-oM***filename*-
The output metric file, in file format
**Metric**(see file format below). In addition, optional parameter can be added to control the metric generation. All the options are described below.

## 4) QUALITY IMPROVE

Improve quality for an existing mesh and generate a new mesh.

bamg -r toto_bgd.bamg -M toto_bgd.metric -o toto_new.bamg

**-r***filename*-
The input mesh file (bamg format
**DB mesh**). **-M***filename*-
The input metric file, in file format
**Metric**(see file format below). **-o***filename*-
the output mesh file (bamg file format
**DB mesh**). Some alternatives output file formats are supported with some**-oXY**options where**XY**is one of the supported output file formats (see below). In addition, optional parameter can be added to control the quality improvement. All the options are described below.

## 5) INTERPOLATE

In the adaption process, a solution has been computed with the background mesh. In order to transfer the solution of the problem under consideration on the new generated mesh, an interpolation of old solution is necessary. This tranferred solution may be a good initial guess for the solution on the new mesh. This interpolation is carried out in a P1 Lagrange context.

bamg -b toto_old.bamg -rbb toto_old.bb -r toto_new.bamg -obb toto_new.bb

**-b***filename*-
The destination input mesh file (bamg format
**DB mesh**). **-rbb***filename***-rBB***filename*-
The origin input solution, where the file is of type
**bb**or**BB**(see file format below). **-r***filename*-
The origin input mesh file (bamg format
**DB mesh**). **-wbb***filename***-wBB***filename*- The output solution,as reinterpolated on the destination mesh.

## CREATION OPTIONS

**-hmax***float*- Set the value of the maximal edge size. Default value is the diameter of the domain to be meshed.
**-hmin***float*- Set the value of the minimal edge size. Default value is related to the size of the domain to be meshed and the grid resolution used by the mesh generator (machine dependent).
**-errg***float*-
Set the value of the relative error on geometry of the boundary.
Default value is 0.1.
In any case this value is geater than 1/sqrt(2).
Remark that mesh size created by this option can be smaller
than the
**hmin**argument due to geometrical constraint. **-nbv***int*- Set the maximal number of vertices of the generated mesh. Default value is 50000.

## ADAPTATION OPTIONS

These options are relevant when computing a metric from a scalar field provided in a .bb file. Notice that, when providing a tensor metric in the .bb file, the metric computation is not performed and these options are not relevent.

**-RelError**-
compute the metric with a relative error. This is the default.
In this case, the metric field is defined by
1 |H(x)| M(x) = ---------- -------------------- err*coef^2 max(CutOff,|eta(x)|)

where**err**,**coef**,**CutOff**are adjustable parameters defined below,**eta**is the solution field read in the input file and**H**is its Hessian. Here**|eta|**denotes the absolute value of the field**eta**and**|H|**is the tensor field composed of the absolute values of the Hessian eigenvalues and with the same eigenbasis as**H**. **-AbsError**-
compute the metric with an absolute error.
In this case, the metric is defined by
1 |H(x)| M(x) = ---------- --------------------- err*coef^2 (sup(eta) - inf(eta))

where

**sup(eta)**and**inf(eta)**denotes the two extremal values of the input solution field**eta**. **-coef***float*- the multiplicative coefficient on the mesh size. Default value is 1.0.
**-err***float*-
the level of the
**P1**interpolation error. Default value is 0.01. Recall that this error behaves as**O(h^2)**locally, where**h**is the local mesh size. Remark on the two previous formulae that a change by a factor 1/4 is equivalent to a change by a factor 1/2 on the mesh size. So, either**coef**or**err**are specified in order to generate a convergent mesh family. **-CutOff***float*- the cut-off value used for the relative error criteria. Default value is 1e-5.
**-power***float*- Set the power parameter of hessien to construct the metric. Default value is 1.
**-NbJacobi***int*- Set the number of iterations in a smoothing procedure during the metric construction. The 0 value implies no smoothing. Default value is 1.
**-ratio***float*- Set the ratio for a prescribed smoothing on the metric. If ratio is 0 (default value) or less than 1.1, no smoothing on the metric is done. If ratio > 1.1 the speed of mesh size variation is bounded by log(ratio). Remark tht, as val is closer to 1, the number of vertices generated increases. This may be useful to control the thickness of refined regions near shocks or boundary layers.
**-aniso****-iso**-
The
**-anio**enforces the metric to be anisotropic. This is the default. Conversely, the metric may be of isotropic type with the**-iso**flag. **-anisomax***float*-
Set the bound of mesh anisotropy with respect to minimal
mesh size in all direction so the maximal mesh size in all
direction is bounded by the ratio
**anisomax**. The default value is 1e6. Remark that when**anisomax**=1, the generated mesh is isotropic. **-hminaniso***float*-
Set the value of
**hmin**the minimal edge size and set the aniso mode. **-maxsubdiv***float*-
Change the metric such that the maximal subdivision of a background's
edge is bound by the
**maxsubdiv**number. The**maxsubdiv**number is alway limited by 10 and this is the default value. **-KeepBackVertices****-noKeepBackVertices**- Try to Keep old vertices (default). Otherwise, all vertices are created from scratch.
**-NoRescaling****-Rescaling**-
Don't rescale the solution between
**[0,1]**before metric computation Default is to rescale.

## QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OPTIONS

**-NbSmooth***int*- Set the number of iterations of the mesh smoothing procedure. Default value is 3.
**-omega***float*- Set the relaxation parameter of the smoothing procedure, Default value is 1.8.
**-splitpbedge****-nosplitpbedge**-
Sometimes, an internal edge can have its two vertices on the boundary.
This causes a triangle to have all its vertices on the boundary.
With the
**-splitpbedge**option, this edge is splited in two, and this situation is avoided. By default, don't split. **-thetaquad***float*-
to create quad with 2 triangles
Merge two triangles into a quadrilateral when the four angles of the
quadrilateral are in the range
**[thetaquad, 180-thetaquad]**. **-2**- to create the mesh with a mesh size divided by two.
**-2q**- to split all triangles in three quadrilaterls, and to split all quadrilaterals in four.

## OUTPUT MESH FORMAT OPTIONS

**-o***filename*- bamg DB mesh file format (default).
**-oamdba***filename*- amdba format.
**-oftq***filename*- ftq format.
**-omsh***filename*- msh format (freefem3 format).
**-oam_fmt***filename*- am_fmt format.
**-oam***filename*- am format.
**-onopo***filename*- nopo format.

## OTHERS OPTIONS

**-thetamax***float*-
Set the angular limit for a corner in degre to be curved.
The angle is defined from two normals of two concecutives edges.
The default is 180 degree, i.e. no corners are curved.
This option is usefull when no geomtry are provided, e.g. remeshing from an
other mesh file format (
**am_fmt**,**amdba**,**nopo**, etc). This parameter is normaly specified in the geometry boundaries file (in BD file format) by the**AngleOfCornerBound**optional section: when this file format is used, this option has no effet. **-v***int*- Set the level of printing (verbosity), which can be chosen between 0 and 10. Default value is 1.

## GEOMETRY FILE FORMAT (BAMGCAD)

The general structure allows to specify a mesh describing the geometry of the given domain. The identification of the boundaries are used to define boundary conditions for a partial derivative equation problem. In this case, some of the above sections are not relevant. First the required sections are:

MeshVersionFormatted 0 Dimension 2 VerticesNext, the optional sections:nv{x_ky_ki_k}k=1:nvEdgesne{i_lj_lk_l}l=1:ne

SubDomainA sub-domain, i.e. a bounded connex components of the plan is defined using one edge identifiernd{2ie_korient_kid_k}k=1:nd

*ie*along with an orientation information

*orient*, indicating on which side of this entity the sub-domain lies. This feature is usefull, e.g. when dealing with a domain with holes. The sub-domain number is

*id*. If no sub-domain are defined, then we suppose to mesh all the bounded connex component of the plan. Remark:

**SubDomainFromGeom**is equivalent to

**SubDomain**.

AngleOfCornerBoundTheangle

**AngleOfCornerBound**specifies the angular limit for a corner in degre to be curved. The angle is defined from two normals of two concecutives edges. The default is 180 degree, i.e. no corners are curved. When this angle is defined, some corners could be specified not to be curved by

CornersThe curved geometric representation of a boundary in two dimensions uses the edges provided in the data structure so as to define some curves of order three in the following way:nc{i_k}k=1:nc

*****- an edge whose endpoints are corners and if no additional information are provided will be represented by a straight segment,
*****- an edge whose endpoints are corners but whose tangent is provided at one endpoint will be represented by a curve of degree two,
*****- an edge whose endpoints are corners but whose tangents are provided at these corners will be represented by a curve of degree three,
*****- an edge whose endpoints are not corners and with no additional information will be represented by a curve of degree three. Indeed, we use in this case the adjacent edges so as to evaluate the tangents at the edge endpoints.

In short, an edge defined by two informations will be approached by a straight line, three information allow to obtain a curve of degree two and four data allow for a approximation of degree three. The tangents are optionally specified by:

TangentAtEdgesFor the edge identifiernt{ie_kive_kxtyt}k=1:nt

*ie*, the tangent at its

*ive*vertex (

*ive*takes value 1 or 2) is specified by its components

*xt*and

*yt*. Giving the tangent vector of an edge by means of the tangent vector at a point enables us to deal with the case where several edges (boundary lines) are emanating from a point.

The required vertices, are the vertices of the support that must be present in the mesh as element vertices. Similarly, some edges can be required:

RequiredVerticesThe following features are planed for future work. For periodic boundary conditions, the sectionnrv{iv_k}k=1:nrvRequiredEdges (nre{ie_k}k=1:nre

**EquivalencedEdges**indicates that two edges must be meshed the same way:

EquivalencedEdgesCrack definition is the purpose of thenee{ie1_kie2_k}k=1:nee

**CrackedEdges**section. We specify then that an edge is identical in terms of geometry to another edge:

CrackedEdgesnce{ie1_kie2_k}k=1:nce

## CREDITS

Frederic Hecht <[email protected]> is the author of bamg. Pierre Saramito <[email protected]> writes this unix man page.

## MORE READING

The original site of the bamg mesh generator is **http://www.ann.jussieu.fr/hecht/ftp/bamg**.
Please read **http://www.ann.jussieu.fr/hecht/ftp/bamg/bamg.pdf** for
the detailled file formats and more advanced examples, e.g. a mesh
adaptation loop to minimize the P1 Lagrange interpolation error.