guestfish(1) the guest filesystem shell

## SYNOPSIS

guestfish [--options] [commands]
guestfish
guestfish [--ro|--rw] -a disk.img
guestfish [--ro|--rw] -a disk.img -m dev[:mountpoint]
guestfish -d libvirt-domain
guestfish [--ro|--rw] -a disk.img -i
guestfish -d libvirt-domain -i

## WARNING

Using "guestfish" in write mode on live virtual machines, or concurrently with other disk editing tools, can be dangerous, potentially causing disk corruption. The virtual machine must be shut down before you use this command, and disk images must not be edited concurrently.

Use the --ro (read-only) option to use "guestfish" safely if the disk image or virtual machine might be live. You may see strange or inconsistent results if running concurrently with other changes, but with this option you won't risk disk corruption.

## DESCRIPTION

Guestfish is a shell and command-line tool for examining and modifying virtual machine filesystems. It uses libguestfs and exposes all of the functionality of the guestfs API, see guestfs(3).

Guestfish gives you structured access to the libguestfs API, from shell scripts or the command line or interactively. If you want to rescue a broken virtual machine image, you should look at the virt-rescue(1) command.

 $guestfish Welcome to guestfish, the guest filesystem shell for editing virtual machine filesystems. Type: 'help' for a list of commands 'man' to read the manual 'quit' to quit the shell ><fs> add-ro disk.img ><fs> run ><fs> list-filesystems /dev/sda1: ext4 /dev/vg_guest/lv_root: ext4 /dev/vg_guest/lv_swap: swap ><fs> mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root / ><fs> cat /etc/fstab # /etc/fstab # Created by anaconda [...] ><fs> exit  ## From shell scripts Create a new /etc/motd file in a guest or disk image:  guestfish <<_EOF_ add disk.img run mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root / write /etc/motd "Welcome, new users" _EOF_  List the LVM logical volumes in a disk image:  guestfish -a disk.img --ro <<_EOF_ run lvs _EOF_  List all the filesystems in a disk image:  guestfish -a disk.img --ro <<_EOF_ run list-filesystems _EOF_  ## On one command line Update /etc/resolv.conf in a guest:  guestfish \ add disk.img : run : mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root / : \ write /etc/resolv.conf "nameserver 1.2.3.4"  Edit /boot/grub/grub.conf interactively:  guestfish --rw --add disk.img \ --mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root \ --mount /dev/sda1:/boot \ edit /boot/grub/grub.conf  ## Mount disks automatically Use the -i option to automatically mount the disks from a virtual machine:  guestfish --ro -a disk.img -i cat /etc/group guestfish --ro -d libvirt-domain -i cat /etc/group  Another way to edit /boot/grub/grub.conf interactively is:  guestfish --rw -a disk.img -i edit /boot/grub/grub.conf  ## As a script interpreter Create a 100MB disk containing an ext2-formatted partition:  #!/usr/bin/guestfish -f sparse test1.img 100M run part-disk /dev/sda mbr mkfs ext2 /dev/sda1  ## Start with a prepared disk An alternate way to create a 100MB disk called test1.img containing a single ext2-formatted partition:  guestfish -N fs  To list what is available do:  guestfish -N help | less  ## Remote drives Access a remote disk using ssh:  guestfish -a ssh://example.com/path/to/disk.img  ## Remote control  eval "guestfish --listen" guestfish --remote add-ro disk.img guestfish --remote run guestfish --remote lvs  ## OPTIONS --help Displays general help on options. -h --cmd-help Lists all available guestfish commands. -h cmd --cmd-help cmd Displays detailed help on a single command "cmd". -a image --add image Add a block device or virtual machine image to the shell. The format of the disk image is auto-detected. To override this and force a particular format use the --format=.. option. Using this flag is mostly equivalent to using the "add" command, with "readonly:true" if the --ro flag was given, and with "format:..." if the --format=... flag was given. -a URI --add URI Add a remote disk. See ADDING REMOTE STORAGE''. -c URI --connect URI When used in conjunction with the -d option, this specifies the libvirt URI to use. The default is to use the default libvirt connection. --csh If using the --listen option and a csh-like shell, use this option. See section REMOTE CONTROL AND CSH'' below. -d libvirt-domain --domain libvirt-domain Add disks from the named libvirt domain. If the --ro option is also used, then any libvirt domain can be used. However in write mode, only libvirt domains which are shut down can be named here. Domain UUIDs can be used instead of names. Using this flag is mostly equivalent to using the "add-domain" command, with "readonly:true" if the --ro flag was given, and with "format:..." if the --format=... flag was given. --echo-keys When prompting for keys and passphrases, guestfish normally turns echoing off so you cannot see what you are typing. If you are not worried about Tempest attacks and there is no one else in the room you can specify this flag to see what you are typing. -f file --file file Read commands from "file". To write pure guestfish scripts, use:  #!/usr/bin/guestfish -f  --format=raw|qcow2|.. --format The default for the -a option is to auto-detect the format of the disk image. Using this forces the disk format for -a options which follow on the command line. Using --format with no argument switches back to auto-detection for subsequent -a options. For example:  guestfish --format=raw -a disk.img  forces raw format (no auto-detection) for disk.img.  guestfish --format=raw -a disk.img --format -a another.img  forces raw format (no auto-detection) for disk.img and reverts to auto-detection for another.img. If you have untrusted raw-format guest disk images, you should use this option to specify the disk format. This avoids a possible security problem with malicious guests (CVE-2010-3851). See also add''. -i --inspector Using virt-inspector(1) code, inspect the disks looking for an operating system and mount filesystems as they would be mounted on the real virtual machine. Typical usage is either:  guestfish -d myguest -i  (for an inactive libvirt domain called myguest), or:  guestfish --ro -d myguest -i  (for active domains, readonly), or specify the block device directly:  guestfish --rw -a /dev/Guests/MyGuest -i  Note that the command line syntax changed slightly over older versions of guestfish. You can still use the old syntax:  guestfish [--ro] -i disk.img guestfish [--ro] -i libvirt-domain  Using this flag is mostly equivalent to using the "inspect-os" command and then using other commands to mount the filesystems that were found. --keys-from-stdin Read key or passphrase parameters from stdin. The default is to try to read passphrases from the user by opening /dev/tty. --listen Fork into the background and listen for remote commands. See section REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET'' below. --live Connect to a live virtual machine. (Experimental, see ATTACHING TO RUNNING DAEMONS'' in guestfs(3)). -m dev[:mountpoint[:options[:fstype]]] --mount dev[:mountpoint[:options[:fstype]]] Mount the named partition or logical volume on the given mountpoint. If the mountpoint is omitted, it defaults to /. You have to mount something on / before most commands will work. If any -m or --mount options are given, the guest is automatically launched. If you don't know what filesystems a disk image contains, you can either run guestfish without this option, then list the partitions, filesystems and LVs available (see list-partitions'', list-filesystems'' and lvs'' commands), or you can use the virt-filesystems(1) program. The third (and rarely used) part of the mount parameter is the list of mount options used to mount the underlying filesystem. If this is not given, then the mount options are either the empty string or "ro" (the latter if the --ro flag is used). By specifying the mount options, you override this default choice. Probably the only time you would use this is to enable ACLs and/or extended attributes if the filesystem can support them:  -m /dev/sda1:/:acl,user_xattr  Using this flag is equivalent to using the "mount-options" command. The fourth part of the parameter is the filesystem driver to use, such as "ext3" or "ntfs". This is rarely needed, but can be useful if multiple drivers are valid for a filesystem (eg: "ext2" and "ext3"), or if libguestfs misidentifies a filesystem. --network Enable QEMU user networking in the guest. -N [filename=]type --new [filename=]type -N help Prepare a fresh disk image formatted as type''. This is an alternative to the -a option: whereas -a adds an existing disk, -N creates a preformatted disk with a filesystem and adds it. See PREPARED DISK IMAGES'' below. -n --no-sync Disable autosync. This is enabled by default. See the discussion of autosync in the guestfs(3) manpage. --no-dest-paths Don't tab-complete paths on the guest filesystem. It is useful to be able to hit the tab key to complete paths on the guest filesystem, but this causes extra hidden'' guestfs calls to be made, so this option is here to allow this feature to be disabled. --pipe-error If writes fail to pipe commands (see PIPES'' below), then the command returns an error. The default (also for historical reasons) is to ignore such errors so that:  ><fs> command_with_lots_of_output | head  doesn't give an error. --progress-bars Enable progress bars, even when guestfish is used non-interactively. Progress bars are enabled by default when guestfish is used as an interactive shell. --no-progress-bars Disable progress bars. --remote[=pid] Send remote commands to$GUESTFISH_PID or "pid". See section REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET'' below.
-r
--ro
This changes the -a, -d and -m options so that disks are added and mounts are done read-only.

The option must always be used if the disk image or virtual machine might be running, and is generally recommended in cases where you don't need write access to the disk.

Note that prepared disk images created with -N are not affected by this option. Also commands like "add" are not affected - you have to specify the "readonly:true" option explicitly if you need it.

See also OPENING DISKS FOR READ AND WRITE'' below.

--selinux
Enable SELinux support for the guest. See SELINUX'' in guestfs(3).
-v
--verbose
Enable very verbose messages. This is particularly useful if you find a bug.
-V
--version
Display the guestfish / libguestfs version number and exit.
-w
--rw
This changes the -a, -d and -m options so that disks are added and mounts are done read-write.

See OPENING DISKS FOR READ AND WRITE'' below.

-x
Echo each command before executing it.

## COMMANDS ON COMMAND LINE

Any additional (non-option) arguments are treated as commands to execute.

Commands to execute should be separated by a colon (":"), where the colon is a separate parameter. Thus:

 guestfish cmd [args...] : cmd [args...] : cmd [args...] ...


If there are no additional arguments, then we enter a shell, either an interactive shell with a prompt (if the input is a terminal) or a non-interactive shell.

In either command line mode or non-interactive shell, the first command that gives an error causes the whole shell to exit. In interactive mode (with a prompt) if a command fails, you can continue to enter commands.

## USING launch (OR run)

As with guestfs(3), you must first configure your guest by adding disks, then launch it, then mount any disks you need, and finally issue actions/commands. So the general order of the day is:
• launch (aka run)
• mount or -m/--mount
• any other commands

"run" is a synonym for "launch". You must "launch" (or "run") your guest before mounting or performing any other commands.

The only exception is that if any of the -i, -m, --mount, -N or --new options were given then "run" is done automatically, simply because guestfish can't perform the action you asked for without doing this.

## OPENING DISKS FOR READ AND WRITE

The guestfish, guestmount(1) and virt-rescue(1) options --ro and --rw affect whether the other command line options -a, -c, -d, -i and -m open disk images read-only or for writing.

In libguestfs ≤ 1.10, guestfish, guestmount and virt-rescue defaulted to opening disk images supplied on the command line for write. To open a disk image read-only you have to do -a image --ro.

This matters: If you accidentally open a live VM disk image writable then you will cause irreversible disk corruption.

In a future libguestfs we intend to change the default the other way. Disk images will be opened read-only. You will have to either specify guestfish --rw, guestmount --rw, virt-rescue --rw, or change the configuration file in order to get write access for disk images specified by those other command line options.

This version of guestfish, guestmount and virt-rescue has a --rw option which does nothing (it is already the default). However it is highly recommended that you use this option to indicate that you need write access, and prepare your scripts for the day when this option will be required for write access.

Note: This does not affect commands like add'' and mount'', or any other libguestfs program apart from guestfish and guestmount.

## QUOTING

You can quote ordinary parameters using either single or double quotes. For example:

 add "file with a space.img"
rm '/file name'
rm '/"'


A few commands require a list of strings to be passed. For these, use a whitespace-separated list, enclosed in quotes. Strings containing whitespace to be passed through must be enclosed in single quotes. A literal single quote must be escaped with a backslash.

 vgcreate VG "/dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1"
command "/bin/echo 'foo      bar'"
command "/bin/echo \'foo\'"


## ESCAPE SEQUENCES IN DOUBLE QUOTED ARGUMENTS

In double-quoted arguments (only) use backslash to insert special characters:
"\a"
"\b"
Backspace character.
"\f"
Form feed character.
"\n"
Newline character.
"\r"
Carriage return character.
"\t"
Horizontal tab character.
"\v"
Vertical tab character.
"\""
A literal double quote character.
"\ooo"
A character with octal value ooo. There must be precisely 3 octal digits (unlike C).
"\xhh"
A character with hex value hh. There must be precisely 2 hex digits.

In the current implementation "\000" and "\x00" cannot be used in strings.

"\\"
A literal backslash character.

## OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

Some commands take optional arguments. These arguments appear in this documentation as "[argname:..]". You can use them as in these examples:

 add filename


Each optional argument can appear at most once. All optional arguments must appear after the required ones.

## NUMBERS

This section applies to all commands which can take integers as parameters.

## SIZE SUFFIX

When the command takes a parameter measured in bytes, you can use one of the following suffixes to specify kilobytes, megabytes and larger sizes:
k or K or KiB
The size in kilobytes (multiplied by 1024).
KB
The size in SI 1000 byte units.
M or MiB
The size in megabytes (multiplied by 1048576).
MB
The size in SI 1000000 byte units.
G or GiB
The size in gigabytes (multiplied by 2**30).
GB
The size in SI 10**9 byte units.
T or TiB
The size in terabytes (multiplied by 2**40).
TB
The size in SI 10**12 byte units.
P or PiB
The size in petabytes (multiplied by 2**50).
PB
The size in SI 10**15 byte units.
E or EiB
The size in exabytes (multiplied by 2**60).
EB
The size in SI 10**18 byte units.
Z or ZiB
The size in zettabytes (multiplied by 2**70).
ZB
The size in SI 10**21 byte units.
Y or YiB
The size in yottabytes (multiplied by 2**80).
YB
The size in SI 10**24 byte units.

For example:

 truncate-size /file 1G


would truncate the file to 1 gigabyte.

Be careful because a few commands take sizes in kilobytes or megabytes (eg. the parameter to memsize'' is specified in megabytes already). Adding a suffix will probably not do what you expect.

For specifying the radix (base) use the C convention: 0 to prefix an octal number or "0x" to prefix a hexadecimal number. For example:

 1234      decimal number 1234
02322     octal number, equivalent to decimal 1234
0x4d2     hexadecimal number, equivalent to decimal 1234


When using the "chmod" command, you almost always want to specify an octal number for the mode, and you must prefix it with 0 (unlike the Unix chmod(1) program):

 chmod 0777 /public  # OK
chmod 777 /public   # WRONG! This is mode 777 decimal = 01411 octal.


Commands that return numbers usually print them in decimal, but some commands print numbers in other radices (eg. "umask" prints the mode in octal, preceded by 0).

## WILDCARDS AND GLOBBING

Neither guestfish nor the underlying guestfs API performs wildcard expansion (globbing) by default. So for example the following will not do what you expect:

 rm-rf /home/*


Assuming you don't have a directory called literally /home/* then the above command will return an error.

To perform wildcard expansion, use the "glob" command.

 glob rm-rf /home/*


runs "rm-rf" on each path that matches (ie. potentially running the command many times), equivalent to:

 rm-rf /home/jim
rm-rf /home/joe
rm-rf /home/mary


"glob" only works on simple guest paths and not on device names.

If you have several parameters, each containing a wildcard, then glob will perform a Cartesian product.

Any line which starts with a # character is treated as a comment and ignored. The # can optionally be preceded by whitespace, but not by a command. For example:

 # this is a comment
# this is a comment
foo # NOT a comment


Blank lines are also ignored.

## RUNNING COMMANDS LOCALLY

Any line which starts with a ! character is treated as a command sent to the local shell (/bin/sh or whatever system(3) uses). For example:

 !mkdir local
tgz-out /remote local/remote-data.tar.gz


will create a directory "local" on the host, and then export the contents of /remote on the mounted filesystem to local/remote-data.tar.gz. (See "tgz-out").

To change the local directory, use the "lcd" command. "!cd" will have no effect, due to the way that subprocesses work in Unix.

## LOCAL COMMANDS WITH INLINE EXECUTION

If a line starts with <! then the shell command is executed (as for !), but subsequently any output (stdout) of the shell command is parsed and executed as guestfish commands.

Thus you can use shell script to construct arbitrary guestfish commands which are then parsed by guestfish.

For example it is tedious to create a sequence of files (eg. /foo.1 through /foo.100) using guestfish commands alone. However this is simple if we use a shell script to create the guestfish commands for us:

 <! for n in seq 1 100; do echo write /foo.$n$n; done


or with names like /foo.001:

 <! for n in seq 1 100; do printf "write /foo.%03d %d\n" $n$n; done


When using guestfish interactively it can be helpful to just run the shell script first (ie. remove the initial "<" character so it is just an ordinary ! local command), see what guestfish commands it would run, and when you are happy with those prepend the "<" character to run the guestfish commands for real.

## PIPES

Use "command <space> | command" to pipe the output of the first command (a guestfish command) to the second command (any host command). For example:

 cat /etc/passwd | awk -F: '$3 == 0 { print }'  (where "cat" is the guestfish cat command, but "awk" is the host awk program). The above command would list all accounts in the guest filesystem which have UID 0, ie. root accounts including backdoors. Other examples:  hexdump /bin/ls | head list-devices | tail -1 tgz-out / - | tar ztf -  The space before the pipe symbol is required, any space after the pipe symbol is optional. Everything after the pipe symbol is just passed straight to the host shell, so it can contain redirections, globs and anything else that makes sense on the host side. To use a literal argument which begins with a pipe symbol, you have to quote it, eg:  echo "|"  ## HOME DIRECTORIES If a parameter starts with the character "~" then the tilde may be expanded as a home directory path (either "~" for the current user's home directory, or "~user" for another user). Note that home directory expansion happens for users known on the host, not in the guest filesystem. To use a literal argument which begins with a tilde, you have to quote it, eg:  echo "~"  ## ENCRYPTED DISKS Libguestfs has some support for Linux guests encrypted according to the Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) standard, which includes nearly all whole disk encryption systems used by modern Linux guests. Currently only LVM-on-LUKS is supported. Identify encrypted block devices and partitions using vfs-type'':  ><fs> vfs-type /dev/sda2 crypto_LUKS  Then open those devices using luks-open''. This creates a device-mapper device called /dev/mapper/luksdev.  ><fs> luks-open /dev/sda2 luksdev Enter key or passphrase ("key"): <enter the passphrase>  Finally you have to tell LVM to scan for volume groups on the newly created mapper device:  vgscan vg-activate-all true  The logical volume(s) can now be mounted in the usual way. Before closing a LUKS device you must unmount any logical volumes on it and deactivate the volume groups by calling "vg-activate false VG" on each one. Then you can close the mapper device:  vg-activate false /dev/VG luks-close /dev/mapper/luksdev  ## WINDOWS PATHS If a path is prefixed with "win:" then you can use Windows-style drive letters and paths (with some limitations). The following commands are equivalent:  file /WINDOWS/system32/config/system.LOG file win:\windows\system32\config\system.log file WIN:C:\Windows\SYSTEM32\CONFIG\SYSTEM.LOG  The parameter is rewritten behind the scenes'' by looking up the position where the drive is mounted, prepending that to the path, changing all backslash characters to forward slash, then resolving the result using case-sensitive-path''. For example if the E: drive was mounted on /e then the parameter might be rewritten like this:  win:e:\foo\bar => /e/FOO/bar  This only works in argument positions that expect a path. ## UPLOADING AND DOWNLOADING FILES For commands such as "upload", "download", "tar-in", "tar-out" and others which upload from or download to a local file, you can use the special filename "-" to mean from stdin'' or to stdout''. For example:  upload - /foo  reads stdin and creates from that a file /foo in the disk image, and:  tar-out /etc - | tar tf -  writes the tarball to stdout and then pipes that into the external tar'' command (see PIPES''). When using "-" to read from stdin, the input is read up to the end of stdin. You can also use a special heredoc''-like syntax to read up to some arbitrary end marker:  upload -<<END /foo input line 1 input line 2 input line 3 END  Any string of characters can be used instead of "END". The end marker must appear on a line of its own, without any preceding or following characters (not even spaces). Note that the "-<<" syntax only applies to parameters used to upload local files (so-called FileIn'' parameters in the generator). ## EXIT ON ERROR BEHAVIOUR By default, guestfish will ignore any errors when in interactive mode (ie. taking commands from a human over a tty), and will exit on the first error in non-interactive mode (scripts, commands given on the command line). If you prefix a command with a - character, then that command will not cause guestfish to exit, even if that (one) command returns an error. ## REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET Guestfish can be remote-controlled over a socket. This is useful particularly in shell scripts where you want to make several different changes to a filesystem, but you don't want the overhead of starting up a guestfish process each time. Start a guestfish server process using:  eval "guestfish --listen"  and then send it commands by doing:  guestfish --remote cmd [...]  To cause the server to exit, send it the exit command:  guestfish --remote exit  Note that the server will normally exit if there is an error in a command. You can change this in the usual way. See section EXIT ON ERROR BEHAVIOUR''. ## CONTROLLING MULTIPLE GUESTFISH PROCESSES The "eval" statement sets the environment variable$GUESTFISH_PID, which is how the --remote option knows where to send the commands. You can have several guestfish listener processes running using:

 eval "guestfish --listen"
pid1=$GUESTFISH_PID eval "guestfish --listen" pid2=$GUESTFISH_PID
...
guestfish --remote=$pid1 cmd guestfish --remote=$pid2 cmd


## REMOTE CONTROL AND CSH

When using csh-like shells (csh, tcsh etc) you have to add the --csh option:

 eval "guestfish --listen --csh"


## REMOTE CONTROL DETAILS

Remote control happens over a Unix domain socket called /tmp/.guestfish-$UID/socket-$PID, where $UID is the effective user ID of the process, and$PID is the process ID of the server.

Guestfish client and server versions must match exactly.

Older versions of guestfish were vulnerable to CVE-2013-4419 (see CVE-2013-4419'' in guestfs(3)). This is fixed in the current version.

## USING REMOTE CONTROL ROBUSTLY FROM SHELL SCRIPTS

From Bash, you can use the following code which creates a guestfish instance, correctly quotes the command line, handles failure to start, and cleans up guestfish when the script exits:

 #!/bin/bash -

set -e

guestfish[0]="guestfish"
guestfish[1]="--listen"
guestfish[2]="--ro"
guestfish[3]="-a"
guestfish[4]="disk.img"

GUESTFISH_PID=
eval $("${guestfish[@]}")
if [ -z "$GUESTFISH_PID" ]; then echo "error: guestfish didn't start up, see error messages above" exit 1 fi cleanup_guestfish () { guestfish --remote -- exit >/dev/null 2>&1 ||: } trap cleanup_guestfish EXIT ERR guestfish --remote -- run # ...  ## REMOTE CONTROL DOES NOT WORK WITH -aETC. OPTIONS Options such as -a, --add, -N, --new etc don't interact properly with remote support. They are processed locally, and not sent through to the remote guestfish. In particular this won't do what you expect:  guestfish --remote --add disk.img  Don't use these options. Use the equivalent commands instead, eg:  guestfish --remote add-drive disk.img  or:  guestfish --remote ><fs> add disk.img  ## REMOTE CONTROL RUN COMMAND HANGING Using the "run" (or "launch") command remotely in a command substitution context hangs, ie. don't do (note the backquotes):  a=guestfish --remote run  Since the "run" command produces no output on stdout, this is not useful anyway. For further information see https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=592910. ## PREPARED DISK IMAGES Use the -N [filename=]type or --new [filename=]type parameter to select one of a set of preformatted disk images that guestfish can make for you to save typing. This is particularly useful for testing purposes. This option is used instead of the -a option, and like -a can appear multiple times (and can be mixed with -a). The new disk is called test1.img for the first -N, test2.img for the second and so on. Existing files in the current directory are overwritten. You can use a different filename by specifying "filename=" before the type (see examples below). The type briefly describes how the disk should be sized, partitioned, how filesystem(s) should be created, and how content should be added. Optionally the type can be followed by extra parameters, separated by ":" (colon) characters. For example, -N fs creates a default 100MB, sparsely-allocated disk, containing a single partition, with the partition formatted as ext2. -N fs:ext4:1G is the same, but for an ext4 filesystem on a 1GB disk instead. Note that the prepared filesystem is not mounted. You would usually have to use the "mount /dev/sda1 /" command or add the -m /dev/sda1 option. If any -N or --new options are given, the libguestfs appliance is automatically launched. ## EXAMPLES Create a 100MB disk with an ext4-formatted partition, called test1.img in the current directory:  guestfish -N fs:ext4  Create a 32MB disk with a VFAT-formatted partition, and mount it:  guestfish -N fs:vfat:32M -m /dev/sda1  Create a blank 200MB disk:  guestfish -N disk:200M  Create a blank 200MB disk called blankdisk.img (instead of test1.img):  guestfish -N blankdisk.img=disk:200M  ## -N disk - create a blank disk "guestfish -N [filename=]disk[:size]" Create a blank disk, size 100MB (by default). The default size can be changed by supplying an optional parameter. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value size 100M the size of the disk image  ## -N part - create a partitioned disk "guestfish -N [filename=]part[:size[:partition]]" Create a disk with a single partition. By default the size of the disk is 100MB (the available space in the partition will be a tiny bit smaller) and the partition table will be MBR (old DOS-style). These defaults can be changed by supplying optional parameters. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value size 100M the size of the disk image partition mbr partition table type  ## -N fs - create a filesystem "guestfish -N [filename=]fs[:filesystem[:size[:partition]]]" Create a disk with a single partition, with the partition containing an empty filesystem. This defaults to creating a 100MB disk (the available space in the filesystem will be a tiny bit smaller) with an MBR (old DOS-style) partition table and an ext2 filesystem. These defaults can be changed by supplying optional parameters. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value filesystem ext2 the type of filesystem to use size 100M the size of the disk image partition mbr partition table type  ## -N lv - create a disk with logical volume "guestfish -N [filename=]lv[:name[:size[:partition]]]" Create a disk with a single partition, set up the partition as an LVM2 physical volume, and place a volume group and logical volume on there. This defaults to creating a 100MB disk with the VG and LV called "/dev/VG/LV". You can change the name of the VG and LV by supplying an alternate name as the first optional parameter. Note this does not create a filesystem. Use 'lvfs' to do that. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value name /dev/VG/LV the name of the VG and LV to use size 100M the size of the disk image partition mbr partition table type  ## -N lvfs - create a disk with logical volume and filesystem "guestfish -N [filename=]lvfs[:name[:filesystem[:size[:partition]]]]" Create a disk with a single partition, set up the partition as an LVM2 physical volume, and place a volume group and logical volume on there. Then format the LV with a filesystem. This defaults to creating a 100MB disk with the VG and LV called "/dev/VG/LV", with an ext2 filesystem. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value name /dev/VG/LV the name of the VG and LV to use filesystem ext2 the type of filesystem to use size 100M the size of the disk image partition mbr partition table type  ## -N bootroot - create a boot and root filesystem "guestfish -N [filename=]bootroot[:bootfs[:rootfs[:size[:bootsize[:partition]]]]]" Create a disk with two partitions, for boot and root filesystem. Format the two filesystems independently. There are several optional parameters which control the exact layout and filesystem types. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value bootfs ext2 the type of filesystem to use for boot rootfs ext2 the type of filesystem to use for root size 100M the size of the disk image bootsize 32M the size of the boot filesystem partition mbr partition table type  ## -N bootrootlv - create a boot and root filesystem using LVM "guestfish -N [filename=]bootrootlv[:name[:bootfs[:rootfs[:size[:bootsize[:partition]]]]]]" This is the same as "bootroot" but the root filesystem (only) is placed on a logical volume, named by default "/dev/VG/LV". There are several optional parameters which control the exact layout. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value name /dev/VG/LV the name of the VG and LV for root bootfs ext2 the type of filesystem to use for boot rootfs ext2 the type of filesystem to use for root size 100M the size of the disk image bootsize 32M the size of the boot filesystem partition mbr partition table type  ## ADDING REMOTE STORAGE For API-level documentation on this topic, see guestfs_add_drive_opts'' in guestfs(3) and REMOTE STORAGE'' in guestfs(3). On the command line, you can use the -a option to add network block devices using a URI-style format, for example:  guestfish -a ssh://[email protected]/disk.img  URIs cannot be used with the add'' command. The equivalent command using the API directly is:  ><fs> add /disk.img protocol:ssh server:tcp:example.com username:root  The possible -a URI formats are described below. ## -a disk.img ## -a file:///path/to/disk.img Add the local disk image (or device) called disk.img. ## -a ftp://[[email protected]]example.com[:port]/disk.img ## -a ftps://[[email protected]]example.com[:port]/disk.img ## -a http://[[email protected]]example.com[:port]/disk.img ## -a https://[[email protected]]example.com[:port]/disk.img ## -a tftp://[[email protected]]example.com[:port]/disk.img Add a disk located on a remote FTP, HTTP or TFTP server. The equivalent API command would be:  ><fs> add /disk.img protocol:(ftp|...) server:tcp:example.com  ## -a gluster://example.com[:port]/volname/image Add a disk image located on GlusterFS storage. The server is the one running "glusterd", and may be "localhost". The equivalent API command would be:  ><fs> add volname/image protocol:gluster server:tcp:example.com  ## -a iscsi://example.com[:port]/target-iqn-name[/lun] Add a disk located on an iSCSI server. The equivalent API command would be:  ><fs> add target-iqn-name/lun protocol:iscsi server:tcp:example.com  ## -a nbd://example.com[:port] ## -a nbd://example.com[:port]/exportname ## -a nbd://?socket=/socket ## -a nbd:///exportname?socket=/socket Add a disk located on Network Block Device (nbd) storage. The /exportname part of the URI specifies an NBD export name, but is usually left empty. The optional ?socket parameter can be used to specify a Unix domain socket that we talk to the NBD server over. Note that you cannot mix server name (ie. TCP/IP) and socket path. The equivalent API command would be (no export name):  ><fs> add "" protocol:nbd server:[tcp:example.com|unix:/socket]  ## -a rbd:///pool/disk ## -a rbd://example.com[:port]/pool/disk Add a disk image located on a Ceph (RBD/librbd) storage volume. Although libguestfs and Ceph supports multiple servers, only a single server can be specified when using this URI syntax. The equivalent API command would be:  ><fs> add pool/disk protocol:rbd server:tcp:example.com:port  ## -a sheepdog://[example.com[:port]]/volume/image Add a disk image located on a Sheepdog volume. The server name is optional. Although libguestfs and Sheepdog supports multiple servers, only at most one server can be specified when using this URI syntax. The equivalent API command would be:  ><fs> add volume protocol:sheepdog [server:tcp:example.com]  ## -a ssh://[[email protected]]example.com[:port]/disk.img Add a disk image located on a remote server, accessed using the Secure Shell (ssh) SFTP protocol. SFTP is supported out of the box by all major SSH servers. The equivalent API command would be:  ><fs> add /disk protocol:ssh server:tcp:example.com [username:user]  ## PROGRESS BARS Some (not all) long-running commands send progress notification messages as they are running. Guestfish turns these messages into progress bars. When a command that supports progress bars takes longer than two seconds to run, and if progress bars are enabled, then you will see one appearing below the command:  ><fs> copy-size /large-file /another-file 2048M / 10% [#####-----------------------------------------] 00:30  The spinner on the left hand side moves round once for every progress notification received from the backend. This is a (reasonably) golden assurance that the command is doing something'' even if the progress bar is not moving, because the command is able to send the progress notifications. When the bar reaches 100% and the command finishes, the spinner disappears. Progress bars are enabled by default when guestfish is used interactively. You can enable them even for non-interactive modes using --progress-bars, and you can disable them completely using --no-progress-bars. ## PROMPT You can change or add colours to the default prompt ("><fs>") by setting the "GUESTFISH_PS1" environment variable. A second string ("GUESTFISH_OUTPUT") is printed after the command has been entered and before the output, allowing you to control the colour of the output. A third string ("GUESTFISH_INIT") is printed before the welcome message, allowing you to control the colour of that message. A fourth string ("GUESTFISH_RESTORE") is printed before guestfish exits. A simple prompt can be set by setting "GUESTFISH_PS1" to an alternate string: $ GUESTFISH_PS1='(type a command) '
$export GUESTFISH_PS1$ guestfish
[...]
(type a command) ▂


You can also use special escape sequences, as described in the table below:

\\
A literal backslash character.

(These should only be used in "GUESTFISH_PS1".)

Place non-printing characters (eg. terminal control codes for colours) between "$...$". What this does it to tell the readline(3) library that it should treat this subsequence as zero-width, so that command-line redisplay, editing etc works.

\a
A bell character.
\e
An ASCII ESC (escape) character.
\n
A newline.
\r
A carriage return.
\NNN
The ASCII character whose code is the octal value NNN.
\xNN
The ASCII character whose code is the hex value NN.

## EXAMPLES OF PROMPTS

Note these these require a terminal that supports ANSI escape codes.
•  GUESTFISH_PS1='$\e[1;30m$><fs>$\e[0;30m$ '


A bold black version of the ordinary prompt.

•  GUESTFISH_PS1='$\e[1;32m$><fs>$\e[0;31m$ '
GUESTFISH_OUTPUT='\e[0m'

## event

 event name eventset "shell script ..."


Register a shell script fragment which is executed when an event is raised. See guestfs_set_event_callback'' in guestfs(3) for a discussion of the event API in libguestfs.

The "name" parameter is a name that you give to this event handler. It can be any string (even the empty string) and is simply there so you can delete the handler using the guestfish "delete-event" command.

The "eventset" parameter is a comma-separated list of one or more events, for example "close" or "close,trace". The special value "*" means all events.

The third and final parameter is the shell script fragment (or any external command) that is executed when any of the events in the eventset occurs. It is executed using "$SHELL -c", or if$SHELL is not set then /bin/sh -c.

The shell script fragment receives callback parameters as arguments $1,$2 etc. The actual event that was called is available in the environment variable $EVENT.  event "" close "echo closed" event messages appliance,library,trace "echo [email protected]" event "" progress "echo progress:$3/$4" event "" * "echo$EVENT [email protected]"


## glob

 glob command args...


Expand wildcards in any paths in the args list, and run "command" repeatedly on each matching path.

See WILDCARDS AND GLOBBING''.

## hexedit

 hexedit <filename|device>
hexedit <filename|device> <max>
hexedit <filename|device> <start> <max>


Use hexedit (a hex editor) to edit all or part of a binary file or block device.

This command works by downloading potentially the whole file or device, editing it locally, then uploading it. If the file or device is large, you have to specify which part you wish to edit by using "max" and/or "start" "max" parameters. "start" and "max" are specified in bytes, with the usual modifiers allowed such as "1M" (1 megabyte).

For example to edit the first few sectors of a disk you might do:

 hexedit /dev/sda 1M


which would allow you to edit anywhere within the first megabyte of the disk.

To edit the superblock of an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1, do:

 hexedit /dev/sda1 0x400 0x400


(assuming the superblock is in the standard location).

This command requires the external hexedit(1) program. You can specify another program to use by setting the "HEXEDITOR" environment variable.

See also hexdump''.

## lcd

 lcd directory


Change the local directory, ie. the current directory of guestfish itself.

Note that "!cd" won't do what you might expect.

## list-events

 list-events


List the event handlers registered using the guestfish "event" command.

## manual

  man


Opens the manual page for guestfish.

## less

 more filename
less filename


This is used to view a file.



## sparse

 sparse filename size


This creates an empty sparse file of the given size, and then adds so it can be further examined.

In all respects it works the same as the alloc'' command, except that the image file is allocated sparsely, which means that disk blocks are not assigned to the file until they are needed. Sparse disk files only use space when written to, but they are slower and there is a danger you could run out of real disk space during a write operation.

For more advanced image creation, see disk-create''.

Size can be specified using standard suffixes, eg. "1M".

See also the guestfish scratch'' command.

## supported

 supported


This command returns a list of the optional groups known to the daemon, and indicates which ones are supported by this build of the libguestfs appliance.

See also AVAILABILITY'' in guestfs(3).

## time

 time command args...


Run the command as usual, but print the elapsed time afterwards. This can be useful for benchmarking operations.

## unsetenv

  unsetenv VAR


Remove "VAR" from the environment.

## acl-delete-def-file

 acl-delete-def-file dir


This function deletes the default POSIX Access Control List (ACL) attached to directory "dir".

This command depends on the feature "acl". See also feature-available''.

## acl-get-file

 acl-get-file path acltype


This function returns the POSIX Access Control List (ACL) attached to "path". The ACL is returned in long text form'' (see acl(5)).

The "acltype" parameter may be:

"access"
Return the ordinary (access) ACL for any file, directory or other filesystem object.
"default"
Return the default ACL. Normally this only makes sense if "path" is a directory.

This command depends on the feature "acl". See also feature-available''.

## acl-set-file

 acl-set-file path acltype acl


This function sets the POSIX Access Control List (ACL) attached to "path".

The "acltype" parameter may be:

"access"
Set the ordinary (access) ACL for any file, directory or other filesystem object.
"default"
Set the default ACL. Normally this only makes sense if "path" is a directory.

The "acl" parameter is the new ACL in either long text form'' or short text form'' (see acl(5)). The new ACL completely replaces any previous ACL on the file. The ACL must contain the full Unix permissions (eg. "u::rwx,g::rx,o::rx").

If you are specifying individual users or groups, then the mask field is also required (eg. "m::rwx"), followed by the "u:ID:..." and/or "g:ID:..." field(s). A full ACL string might therefore look like this:

 u::rwx,g::rwx,o::rwx,m::rwx,u:500:rwx,g:500:rwx
\ Unix permissions / \mask/ \      ACL        /


You should use numeric UIDs and GIDs. To map usernames and groupnames to the correct numeric ID in the context of the guest, use the Augeas functions (see aug-init'').

This command depends on the feature "acl". See also feature-available''.

 add-cdrom filename


This function adds a virtual CD-ROM disk image to the guest.

The image is added as read-only drive, so this function is equivalent of add-drive-ro''.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the add-drive-ro'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## domain

 add-domain dom [libvirturi:..] [readonly:true|false] [iface:..] [live:true|false] [allowuuid:true|false] [readonlydisk:..] [cachemode:..] [discard:..] [copyonread:true|false]


This function adds the disk(s) attached to the named libvirt domain "dom". It works by connecting to libvirt, requesting the domain and domain XML from libvirt, parsing it for disks, and calling add-drive-opts'' on each one.

The number of disks added is returned. This operation is atomic: if an error is returned, then no disks are added.

This function does some minimal checks to make sure the libvirt domain is not running (unless "readonly" is true). In a future version we will try to acquire the libvirt lock on each disk.

Disks must be accessible locally. This often means that adding disks from a remote libvirt connection (see http://libvirt.org/remote.html) will fail unless those disks are accessible via the same device path locally too.

The optional "libvirturi" parameter sets the libvirt URI (see http://libvirt.org/uri.html). If this is not set then we connect to the default libvirt URI (or one set through an environment variable, see the libvirt documentation for full details).

The optional "live" flag controls whether this call will try to connect to a running virtual machine "guestfsd" process if it sees a suitable <channel> element in the libvirt XML definition. The default (if the flag is omitted) is never to try. See ATTACHING TO RUNNING DAEMONS'' in guestfs(3) for more information.

If the "allowuuid" flag is true (default is false) then a UUID may be passed instead of the domain name. The "dom" string is treated as a UUID first and looked up, and if that lookup fails then we treat "dom" as a name as usual.

The optional "readonlydisk" parameter controls what we do for disks which are marked <readonly/> in the libvirt XML. Possible values are:

The whole call is aborted with an error if any disk with the <readonly/> flag is found.

If "readonly" is true or false:

Disks with the <readonly/> flag are skipped.

The other optional parameters are passed directly through to add-drive-opts''.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

 add-drive filename [readonly:true|false] [format:..] [iface:..] [name:..] [label:..] [protocol:..] [server:..] [username:..] [secret:..] [cachemode:..] [discard:..] [copyonread:true|false]


This function adds a disk image called filename to the handle. filename may be a regular host file or a host device.

When this function is called before launch'' (the usual case) then the first time you call this function, the disk appears in the API as /dev/sda, the second time as /dev/sdb, and so on.

In libguestfs ≥ 1.20 you can also call this function after launch (with some restrictions). This is called hotplugging''. When hotplugging, you must specify a "label" so that the new disk gets a predictable name. For more information see HOTPLUGGING'' in guestfs(3).

You don't necessarily need to be root when using libguestfs. However you obviously do need sufficient permissions to access the filename for whatever operations you want to perform (ie. read access if you just want to read the image or write access if you want to modify the image).

This call checks that filename exists.

filename may be the special string "/dev/null". See NULL DISKS'' in guestfs(3).

The optional arguments are:

If true then the image is treated as read-only. Writes are still allowed, but they are stored in a temporary snapshot overlay which is discarded at the end. The disk that you add is not modified.
"format"
This forces the image format. If you omit this (or use add-drive'' or add-drive-ro'') then the format is automatically detected. Possible formats include "raw" and "qcow2".

Automatic detection of the format opens you up to a potential security hole when dealing with untrusted raw-format images. See CVE-2010-3851 and RHBZ#642934. Specifying the format closes this security hole.

"iface"
This rarely-used option lets you emulate the behaviour of the deprecated add-drive-with-if'' call (q.v.)
"name"
The name the drive had in the original guest, e.g. /dev/sdb. This is used as a hint to the guest inspection process if it is available.
"label"
Give the disk a label. The label should be a unique, short string using only ASCII characters "[a-zA-Z]". As well as its usual name in the API (such as /dev/sda), the drive will also be named /dev/disk/guestfs/label.

See DISK LABELS'' in guestfs(3).

"protocol"
The optional protocol argument can be used to select an alternate source protocol.

See also: REMOTE STORAGE'' in guestfs(3).

"protocol = "file""
filename is interpreted as a local file or device. This is the default if the optional protocol parameter is omitted.
"protocol = "ftp"|"ftps"|"http"|"https"|"tftp""
Connect to a remote FTP, HTTP or TFTP server. The "server" parameter must also be supplied - see below.

See also: FTP, HTTP AND TFTP'' in guestfs(3)

"protocol = "gluster""
Connect to the GlusterFS server. The "server" parameter must also be supplied - see below.

See also: GLUSTER'' in guestfs(3)

"protocol = "iscsi""
Connect to the iSCSI server. The "server" parameter must also be supplied - see below. The "username" parameter may be supplied. See below. The "secret" parameter may be supplied. See below.

See also: ISCSI'' in guestfs(3).

"protocol = "nbd""
Connect to the Network Block Device server. The "server" parameter must also be supplied - see below.

See also: NETWORK BLOCK DEVICE'' in guestfs(3).

"protocol = "rbd""
Connect to the Ceph (librbd/RBD) server. The "server" parameter must also be supplied - see below. The "username" parameter may be supplied. See below. The "secret" parameter may be supplied. See below.

See also: CEPH'' in guestfs(3).

"protocol = "sheepdog""
Connect to the Sheepdog server. The "server" parameter may also be supplied - see below.

See also: SHEEPDOG'' in guestfs(3).

"protocol = "ssh""
Connect to the Secure Shell (ssh) server.

The "server" parameter must be supplied. The "username" parameter may be supplied. See below.

See also: SSH'' in guestfs(3).

"server"
For protocols which require access to a remote server, this is a list of server(s).

 Protocol       Number of servers required
--------       --------------------------
file           List must be empty or param not used at all
ftp|ftps|http|https|tftp  Exactly one
gluster        Exactly one
iscsi          Exactly one
nbd            Exactly one
rbd            Zero or more
sheepdog       Zero or more
ssh            Exactly one


Each list element is a string specifying a server. The string must be in one of the following formats:

 hostname
hostname:port
tcp:hostname
tcp:hostname:port
unix:/path/to/socket


If the port number is omitted, then the standard port number for the protocol is used (see /etc/services).

For the "ftp", "ftps", "http", "https", "iscsi", "rbd", "ssh" and "tftp" protocols, this specifies the remote username.

If not given, then the local username is used for "ssh", and no authentication is attempted for ceph. But note this sometimes may give unexpected results, for example if using the libvirt backend and if the libvirt backend is configured to start the qemu appliance as a special user such as "qemu.qemu". If in doubt, specify the remote username you want.

"secret"
For the "rbd" protocol only, this specifies the 'secret' to use when connecting to the remote device. It must be base64 encoded.

If not given, then a secret matching the given username will be looked up in the default keychain locations, or if no username is given, then no authentication will be used.

"cachemode"
Choose whether or not libguestfs will obey sync operations (safe but slow) or not (unsafe but fast). The possible values for this string are:
"cachemode = "writeback""
This is the default.

Write operations in the API do not return until a write(2) call has completed in the host [but note this does not imply that anything gets written to disk].

Sync operations in the API, including implicit syncs caused by filesystem journalling, will not return until an fdatasync(2) call has completed in the host, indicating that data has been committed to disk.

"cachemode = "unsafe""
In this mode, there are no guarantees. Libguestfs may cache anything and ignore sync requests. This is suitable only for scratch or temporary disks.
Enable or disable discard (a.k.a. trim or unmap) support on this drive. If enabled, operations such as fstrim'' will be able to discard / make thin / punch holes in the underlying host file or device.

Disable discard support. This is the default.
Enable discard support if possible, but don't fail if it is not supported.

Since not all backends and not all underlying systems support discard, this is a good choice if you want to use discard if possible, but don't mind if it doesn't work.

The boolean parameter "copyonread" enables copy-on-read support. This only affects disk formats which have backing files, and causes reads to be stored in the overlay layer, speeding up multiple reads of the same area of disk.

The default is false.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

 add-drive-ro filename


This function is the equivalent of calling add-drive-opts'' with the optional parameter "GUESTFS_ADD_DRIVE_OPTS_READONLY" set to 1, so the disk is added read-only, with the format being detected automatically.

 add-drive-ro-with-if filename iface


This is the same as add-drive-ro'' but it allows you to specify the QEMU interface emulation to use at run time.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the add-drive'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## scratch

 add-drive-scratch size [name:..] [label:..]


This command adds a temporary scratch drive to the handle. The "size" parameter is the virtual size (in bytes). The scratch drive is blank initially (all reads return zeroes until you start writing to it). The drive is deleted when the handle is closed.

The optional arguments "name" and "label" are passed through to add-drive''.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

 add-drive-with-if filename iface


This is the same as add-drive'' but it allows you to specify the QEMU interface emulation to use at run time.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the add-drive'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## aug-clear

 aug-clear augpath


Set the value associated with "path" to "NULL". This is the same as the augtool(1) "clear" command.

## aug-close

 aug-close


Close the current Augeas handle and free up any resources used by it. After calling this, you have to call aug-init'' again before you can use any other Augeas functions.

## aug-defnode

 aug-defnode name expr val


Defines a variable "name" whose value is the result of evaluating "expr".

If "expr" evaluates to an empty nodeset, a node is created, equivalent to calling aug-set'' "expr", "value". "name" will be the nodeset containing that single node.

On success this returns a pair containing the number of nodes in the nodeset, and a boolean flag if a node was created.

## aug-defvar

 aug-defvar name expr


Defines an Augeas variable "name" whose value is the result of evaluating "expr". If "expr" is NULL, then "name" is undefined.

On success this returns the number of nodes in "expr", or 0 if "expr" evaluates to something which is not a nodeset.

## aug-get

 aug-get augpath


Look up the value associated with "path". If "path" matches exactly one node, the "value" is returned.

## aug-init

 aug-init root flags


Create a new Augeas handle for editing configuration files. If there was any previous Augeas handle associated with this guestfs session, then it is closed.

You must call this before using any other aug-*'' commands.

"root" is the filesystem root. "root" must not be NULL, use / instead.

The flags are the same as the flags defined in <augeas.h>, the logical or of the following integers:

"AUG_SAVE_BACKUP" = 1
Keep the original file with a ".augsave" extension.
"AUG_SAVE_NEWFILE" = 2
Save changes into a file with extension ".augnew", and do not overwrite original. Overrides "AUG_SAVE_BACKUP".
"AUG_TYPE_CHECK" = 4
Typecheck lenses.

This option is only useful when debugging Augeas lenses. Use of this option may require additional memory for the libguestfs appliance. You may need to set the "LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE" environment variable or call set-memsize''.

"AUG_NO_STDINC" = 8
Do not use standard load path for modules.
"AUG_SAVE_NOOP" = 16
Make save a no-op, just record what would have been changed.
Do not load the tree in aug-init''.

To close the handle, you can call aug-close''.

To find out more about Augeas, see http://augeas.net/.

## aug-insert

 aug-insert augpath label true|false


Create a new sibling "label" for "path", inserting it into the tree before or after "path" (depending on the boolean flag "before").

"path" must match exactly one existing node in the tree, and "label" must be a label, ie. not contain /, "*" or end with a bracketed index "[N]".

## aug-label

 aug-label augpath


The label (name of the last element) of the Augeas path expression "augpath" is returned. "augpath" must match exactly one node, else this function returns an error.

 aug-load


See "aug_load" in the Augeas documentation for the full gory details.

## aug-ls

 aug-ls augpath


This is just a shortcut for listing aug-match'' "path/*" and sorting the resulting nodes into alphabetical order.

## aug-match

 aug-match augpath


Returns a list of paths which match the path expression "path". The returned paths are sufficiently qualified so that they match exactly one node in the current tree.

## aug-mv

 aug-mv src dest


Move the node "src" to "dest". "src" must match exactly one node. "dest" is overwritten if it exists.

## aug-rm

 aug-rm augpath


Remove "path" and all of its children.

On success this returns the number of entries which were removed.

## aug-save

 aug-save


This writes all pending changes to disk.

The flags which were passed to aug-init'' affect exactly how files are saved.

## aug-set

 aug-set augpath val


Set the value associated with "path" to "val".

In the Augeas API, it is possible to clear a node by setting the value to NULL. Due to an oversight in the libguestfs API you cannot do that with this call. Instead you must use the aug-clear'' call.

## aug-setm

 aug-setm base sub val


Change multiple Augeas nodes in a single operation. "base" is an expression matching multiple nodes. "sub" is a path expression relative to "base". All nodes matching "base" are found, and then for each node, "sub" is changed to "val". "sub" may also be "NULL" in which case the "base" nodes are modified.

This returns the number of nodes modified.

## available

 available 'groups ...'


This command is used to check the availability of some groups of functionality in the appliance, which not all builds of the libguestfs appliance will be able to provide.

The libguestfs groups, and the functions that those groups correspond to, are listed in AVAILABILITY'' in guestfs(3). You can also fetch this list at runtime by calling available-all-groups''.

The argument "groups" is a list of group names, eg: "["inotify", "augeas"]" would check for the availability of the Linux inotify functions and Augeas (configuration file editing) functions.

The command returns no error if all requested groups are available.

It fails with an error if one or more of the requested groups is unavailable in the appliance.

If an unknown group name is included in the list of groups then an error is always returned.

Notes:

• feature-available'' is the same as this call, but with a slightly simpler to use API: that call returns a boolean true/false instead of throwing an error.
• You must call launch'' before calling this function.

The reason is because we don't know what groups are supported by the appliance/daemon until it is running and can be queried.

• If a group of functions is available, this does not necessarily mean that they will work. You still have to check for errors when calling individual API functions even if they are available.
• It is usually the job of distro packagers to build complete functionality into the libguestfs appliance. Upstream libguestfs, if built from source with all requirements satisfied, will support everything.
• This call was added in version 1.0.80. In previous versions of libguestfs all you could do would be to speculatively execute a command to find out if the daemon implemented it. See also version''.

See also filesystem-available''.

## available-all-groups

 available-all-groups


This command returns a list of all optional groups that this daemon knows about. Note this returns both supported and unsupported groups. To find out which ones the daemon can actually support you have to call available'' / feature-available'' on each member of the returned list.

See also available'', feature-available'' and AVAILABILITY'' in guestfs(3).

## base64-in

 base64-in (base64file|-) filename


This command uploads base64-encoded data from "base64file" to filename.

## base64-out

 base64-out filename (base64file|-)


This command downloads the contents of filename, writing it out to local file "base64file" encoded as base64.

 blkdiscard device


This discards all blocks on the block device "device", giving the free space back to the host.

This operation requires support in libguestfs, the host filesystem, qemu and the host kernel. If this support isn't present it may give an error or even appear to run but do nothing. You must also set the "discard" attribute on the underlying drive (see add-drive-opts'').

This command depends on the feature "blkdiscard". See also feature-available''.

 blkdiscardzeroes device


This call returns true if blocks on "device" that have been discarded by a call to blkdiscard'' are returned as blocks of zero bytes when read the next time.

If it returns false, then it may be that discarded blocks are read as stale or random data.

This command depends on the feature "blkdiscardzeroes". See also feature-available''.

## blkid

 blkid device


This command returns block device attributes for "device". The following fields are usually present in the returned hash. Other fields may also be present.

"UUID"
The uuid of this device.
"LABEL"
The label of this device.
"VERSION"
The version of blkid command.
"TYPE"
The filesystem type or RAID of this device.
"USAGE"
The usage of this device, for example "filesystem" or "raid".

## blockdev-flushbufs

 blockdev-flushbufs device


This tells the kernel to flush internal buffers associated with "device".

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

## blockdev-getbsz

 blockdev-getbsz device


This returns the block size of a device.

Note: this is different from both size in blocks and filesystem block size. Also this setting is not really used by anything. You should probably not use it for anything. Filesystems have their own idea about what block size to choose.

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

## blockdev-getro

 blockdev-getro device


Returns a boolean indicating if the block device is read-only (true if read-only, false if not).

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

## blockdev-getsize64

 blockdev-getsize64 device


This returns the size of the device in bytes.

See also blockdev-getsz''.

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

## blockdev-getss

 blockdev-getss device


This returns the size of sectors on a block device. Usually 512, but can be larger for modern devices.

(Note, this is not the size in sectors, use blockdev-getsz'' for that).

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

## blockdev-getsz

 blockdev-getsz device


This returns the size of the device in units of 512-byte sectors (even if the sectorsize isn't 512 bytes ... weird).

See also blockdev-getss'' for the real sector size of the device, and blockdev-getsize64'' for the more useful size in bytes.

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

 blockdev-rereadpt device


Reread the partition table on "device".

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

## blockdev-setbsz

 blockdev-setbsz device blocksize


This call does nothing and has never done anything because of a bug in blockdev. Do not use it.

If you need to set the filesystem block size, use the "blocksize" option of mkfs''.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the mkfs'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## blockdev-setra

 blockdev-setra device sectors


This uses the blockdev(8) command.

## blockdev-setro

 blockdev-setro device


Sets the block device named "device" to read-only.

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

## blockdev-setrw

 blockdev-setrw device


Sets the block device named "device" to read-write.

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

## btrfs-balance-cancel

 btrfs-balance-cancel path


Cancel a running balance on a btrfs filesystem.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-balance-pause

 btrfs-balance-pause path


Pause a running balance on a btrfs filesystem.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-balance-resume

 btrfs-balance-resume path


Resume a paused balance on a btrfs filesystem.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-balance-status

 btrfs-balance-status path


Show the status of a running or paused balance on a btrfs filesystem.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

 btrfs-device-add 'devices ...' fs


Add the list of device(s) in "devices" to the btrfs filesystem mounted at "fs". If "devices" is an empty list, this does nothing.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-device-delete

 btrfs-device-delete 'devices ...' fs


Remove the "devices" from the btrfs filesystem mounted at "fs". If "devices" is an empty list, this does nothing.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-balance

 btrfs-filesystem-balance fs


Balance the chunks in the btrfs filesystem mounted at "fs" across the underlying devices.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-filesystem-defragment

 btrfs-filesystem-defragment path [flush:true|false] [compress:..]


Defragment a file or directory on a btrfs filesystem. compress is one of zlib or lzo.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-filesystem-resize

 btrfs-filesystem-resize mountpoint [size:N]


This command resizes a btrfs filesystem.

Note that unlike other resize calls, the filesystem has to be mounted and the parameter is the mountpoint not the device (this is a requirement of btrfs itself).

The optional parameters are:

"size"
The new size (in bytes) of the filesystem. If omitted, the filesystem is resized to the maximum size.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-filesystem-sync

 btrfs-filesystem-sync fs


Force sync on the btrfs filesystem mounted at "fs".

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-fsck

 btrfs-fsck device [superblock:N] [repair:true|false]


Used to check a btrfs filesystem, "device" is the device file where the filesystem is stored.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-image

 btrfs-image 'source ...' image [compresslevel:N]


This is used to create an image of a btrfs filesystem. All data will be zeroed, but metadata and the like is preserved.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-qgroup-assign

 btrfs-qgroup-assign src dst path


Add qgroup "src" to parent qgroup "dst". This command can group several qgroups into a parent qgroup to share common limit.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-qgroup-create

 btrfs-qgroup-create qgroupid subvolume


Create a quota group (qgroup) for subvolume at "subvolume".

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-qgroup-destroy

 btrfs-qgroup-destroy qgroupid subvolume


Destroy a quota group.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-qgroup-limit

 btrfs-qgroup-limit subvolume size


Limit the size of a subvolume which's path is "subvolume". "size" can have suffix of G, M, or K.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-qgroup-remove

 btrfs-qgroup-remove src dst path


Remove qgroup "src" from the parent qgroup "dst".

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-qgroup-show

 btrfs-qgroup-show path


Show all subvolume quota groups in a btrfs filesystem, including their usages.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-quota-enable

 btrfs-quota-enable fs true|false


Enable or disable subvolume quota support for filesystem which contains "path".

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-quota-rescan

 btrfs-quota-rescan fs


Trash all qgroup numbers and scan the metadata again with the current config.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-replace

 btrfs-replace srcdev targetdev mntpoint


Replace device of a btrfs filesystem. On a live filesystem, duplicate the data to the target device which is currently stored on the source device. After completion of the operation, the source device is wiped out and removed from the filesystem.

The "targetdev" needs to be same size or larger than the "srcdev". Devices which are currently mounted are never allowed to be used as the "targetdev".

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-rescue-chunk-recover

 btrfs-rescue-chunk-recover device


Recover the chunk tree of btrfs filesystem by scanning the devices one by one.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-rescue-super-recover

 btrfs-rescue-super-recover device


Recover bad superblocks from good copies.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-scrub-cancel

 btrfs-scrub-cancel path


Cancel a running scrub on a btrfs filesystem.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-scrub-resume

 btrfs-scrub-resume path


Resume a previously canceled or interrupted scrub on a btrfs filesystem.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-scrub-start

 btrfs-scrub-start path


Reads all the data and metadata on the filesystem, and uses checksums and the duplicate copies from RAID storage to identify and repair any corrupt data.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-scrub-status

 btrfs-scrub-status path


Show status of running or finished scrub on a btrfs filesystem.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-set-seeding

 btrfs-set-seeding device true|false


Enable or disable the seeding feature of a device that contains a btrfs filesystem.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-subvolume-create-opts

 btrfs-subvolume-create dest [qgroupid:..]


Create a btrfs subvolume. The "dest" argument is the destination directory and the name of the subvolume, in the form /path/to/dest/name. The optional parameter "qgroupid" represents the qgroup which the newly created subvolume will be added to.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-subvolume-delete

 btrfs-subvolume-delete subvolume


Delete the named btrfs subvolume or snapshot.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-subvolume-get-default

 btrfs-subvolume-get-default fs


Get the default subvolume or snapshot of a filesystem mounted at "mountpoint".

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-subvolume-list

 btrfs-subvolume-list fs


List the btrfs snapshots and subvolumes of the btrfs filesystem which is mounted at "fs".

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-subvolume-set-default

 btrfs-subvolume-set-default id fs


Set the subvolume of the btrfs filesystem "fs" which will be mounted by default. See btrfs-subvolume-list'' to get a list of subvolumes.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-subvolume-show

 btrfs-subvolume-show subvolume


Return detailed information of the subvolume.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfs-subvolume-snapshot-opts

 btrfs-subvolume-snapshot source dest [ro:true|false] [qgroupid:..]


Create a snapshot of the btrfs subvolume "source". The "dest" argument is the destination directory and the name of the snapshot, in the form /path/to/dest/name. By default the newly created snapshot is writable, if the value of optional parameter "ro" is true, then a readonly snapshot is created. The optional parameter "qgroupid" represents the qgroup which the newly created snapshot will be added to.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfstune-enable-extended-inode-refs

 btrfstune-enable-extended-inode-refs device


This will Enable extended inode refs.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

 btrfstune-enable-skinny-metadata-extent-refs device


This enable skinny metadata extent refs.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## btrfstune-seeding

 btrfstune-seeding device true|false


Enable seeding of a btrfs device, this will force a fs readonly so that you can use it to build other filesystems.

This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''.

## c-pointer

 c-pointer


In non-C language bindings, this allows you to retrieve the underlying C pointer to the handle (ie. h *''). The purpose of this is to allow other libraries to interwork with libguestfs.

## canonical-device-name

 canonical-device-name device


This utility function is useful when displaying device names to the user. It takes a number of irregular device names and returns them in a consistent format:

/dev/hdX
/dev/vdX
These are returned as /dev/sdX. Note this works for device names and partition names. This is approximately the reverse of the algorithm described in BLOCK DEVICE NAMING'' in guestfs(3).
/dev/mapper/VG-LV
/dev/dm-N
Converted to /dev/VG/LV form using lvm-canonical-lv-name''.

Other strings are returned unmodified.

## cap-get-file

 cap-get-file path


This function returns the Linux capabilities attached to "path". The capabilities set is returned in text form (see cap_to_text(3)).

If no capabilities are attached to a file, an empty string is returned.

This command depends on the feature "linuxcaps". See also feature-available''.

## cap-set-file

 cap-set-file path cap


This function sets the Linux capabilities attached to "path". The capabilities set "cap" should be passed in text form (see cap_from_text(3)).

This command depends on the feature "linuxcaps". See also feature-available''.

## case-sensitive-path

 case-sensitive-path path


This can be used to resolve case insensitive paths on a filesystem which is case sensitive. The use case is to resolve paths which you have read from Windows configuration files or the Windows Registry, to the true path.

The command handles a peculiarity of the Linux ntfs-3g filesystem driver (and probably others), which is that although the underlying filesystem is case-insensitive, the driver exports the filesystem to Linux as case-sensitive.

One consequence of this is that special directories such as C:\windows may appear as /WINDOWS or /windows (or other things) depending on the precise details of how they were created. In Windows itself this would not be a problem.

Bug or feature? You decide: http://www.tuxera.com/community/ntfs-3g-faq/#posixfilenames1

case-sensitive-path'' attempts to resolve the true case of each element in the path. It will return a resolved path if either the full path or its parent directory exists. If the parent directory exists but the full path does not, the case of the parent directory will be correctly resolved, and the remainder appended unmodified. For example, if the file "/Windows/System32/netkvm.sys" exists:

"case-sensitive-path" ("/windows/system32/netkvm.sys")
Windows/System32/netkvm.sys''
"case-sensitive-path" ("/windows/system32/NoSuchFile")
Windows/System32/NoSuchFile''
"case-sensitive-path" ("/windows/system33/netkvm.sys")
ERROR

Note: Because of the above behaviour, case-sensitive-path'' cannot be used to check for the existence of a file.

Note: This function does not handle drive names, backslashes etc.

See also realpath''.

## cat

 cat path


Return the contents of the file named "path".

Because, in C, this function returns a "char *", there is no way to differentiate between a "\0" character in a file and end of string. To handle binary files, use the read-file'' or download'' functions.

## checksum

 checksum csumtype path


This call computes the MD5, SHAx or CRC checksum of the file named "path".

The type of checksum to compute is given by the "csumtype" parameter which must have one of the following values:

"crc"
Compute the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) specified by POSIX for the "cksum" command.
"md5"
Compute the MD5 hash (using the "md5sum" program).
"sha1"
Compute the SHA1 hash (using the "sha1sum" program).
"sha224"
Compute the SHA224 hash (using the "sha224sum" program).
"sha256"
Compute the SHA256 hash (using the "sha256sum" program).
"sha384"
Compute the SHA384 hash (using the "sha384sum" program).
"sha512"
Compute the SHA512 hash (using the "sha512sum" program).

The checksum is returned as a printable string.

To get the checksum for a device, use checksum-device''.

To get the checksums for many files, use checksums-out''.

## checksum-device

 checksum-device csumtype device


This call computes the MD5, SHAx or CRC checksum of the contents of the device named "device". For the types of checksums supported see the checksum'' command.

## checksums-out

 checksums-out csumtype directory (sumsfile|-)


This command computes the checksums of all regular files in directory and then emits a list of those checksums to the local output file "sumsfile".

This can be used for verifying the integrity of a virtual machine. However to be properly secure you should pay attention to the output of the checksum command (it uses the ones from GNU coreutils). In particular when the filename is not printable, coreutils uses a special backslash syntax. For more information, see the GNU coreutils info file.

## chmod

 chmod mode path


Change the mode (permissions) of "path" to "mode". Only numeric modes are supported.

Note: When using this command from guestfish, "mode" by default would be decimal, unless you prefix it with 0 to get octal, ie. use 0700 not 700.

The mode actually set is affected by the umask.

## chown

 chown owner group path


Change the file owner to "owner" and group to "group".

Only numeric uid and gid are supported. If you want to use names, you will need to locate and parse the password file yourself (Augeas support makes this relatively easy).

## clear-backend-setting

 clear-backend-setting name


If there is a backend setting string matching "name" or beginning with "name=", then that string is removed from the backend settings.

This call returns the number of strings which were removed (which may be 0, 1 or greater than 1).

See BACKEND'' in guestfs(3), BACKEND SETTINGS'' in guestfs(3).

## command

 command 'arguments ...'


This call runs a command from the guest filesystem. The filesystem must be mounted, and must contain a compatible operating system (ie. something Linux, with the same or compatible processor architecture).

The single parameter is an argv-style list of arguments. The first element is the name of the program to run. Subsequent elements are parameters. The list must be non-empty (ie. must contain a program name). Note that the command runs directly, and is not invoked via the shell (see sh'').

The return value is anything printed to stdout by the command.

If the command returns a non-zero exit status, then this function returns an error message. The error message string is the content of stderr from the command.

The $PATH environment variable will contain at least /usr/bin and /bin. If you require a program from another location, you should provide the full path in the first parameter. Shared libraries and data files required by the program must be available on filesystems which are mounted in the correct places. It is the caller's responsibility to ensure all filesystems that are needed are mounted at the right locations. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). ## command-lines  command-lines 'arguments ...'  This is the same as command'', but splits the result into a list of lines. See also: sh-lines'' Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). ## compress-device-out  compress-device-out ctype device (zdevice|-) [level:N]  This command compresses "device" and writes it out to the local file "zdevice". The "ctype" and optional "level" parameters have the same meaning as in compress-out''. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## compress-out  compress-out ctype file (zfile|-) [level:N]  This command compresses file and writes it out to the local file zfile. The compression program used is controlled by the "ctype" parameter. Currently this includes: "compress", "gzip", "bzip2", "xz" or "lzop". Some compression types may not be supported by particular builds of libguestfs, in which case you will get an error containing the substring not supported''. The optional "level" parameter controls compression level. The meaning and default for this parameter depends on the compression program being used. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## config  config hvparam hvvalue  This can be used to add arbitrary hypervisor parameters of the form -param value. Actually it's not quite arbitrary - we prevent you from setting some parameters which would interfere with parameters that we use. The first character of "hvparam" string must be a "-" (dash). "hvvalue" can be NULL. ## copy-attributes  copy-attributes src dest [all:true|false] [mode:true|false] [xattributes:true|false] [ownership:true|false]  Copy the attributes of a path (which can be a file or a directory) to another path. By default "no" attribute is copied, so make sure to specify any (or "all" to copy everything). The optional arguments specify which attributes can be copied: "mode" Copy part of the file mode from "source" to "destination". Only the UNIX permissions and the sticky/setuid/setgid bits can be copied. "xattributes" Copy the Linux extended attributes (xattrs) from "source" to "destination". This flag does nothing if the linuxxattrs feature is not available (see feature-available''). "ownership" Copy the owner uid and the group gid of "source" to "destination". "all" Copy all the attributes from "source" to "destination". Enabling it enables all the other flags, if they are not specified already. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## copy-device-to-device  copy-device-to-device src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false] [append:true|false]  The four calls copy-device-to-device'', copy-device-to-file'', copy-file-to-device'', and copy-file-to-file'' let you copy from a source (device|file) to a destination (device|file). Partial copies can be made since you can specify optionally the source offset, destination offset and size to copy. These values are all specified in bytes. If not given, the offsets both default to zero, and the size defaults to copying as much as possible until we hit the end of the source. The source and destination may be the same object. However overlapping regions may not be copied correctly. If the destination is a file, it is created if required. If the destination file is not large enough, it is extended. If the destination is a file and the "append" flag is not set, then the destination file is truncated. If the "append" flag is set, then the copy appends to the destination file. The "append" flag currently cannot be set for devices. If the "sparse" flag is true then the call avoids writing blocks that contain only zeroes, which can help in some situations where the backing disk is thin-provisioned. Note that unless the target is already zeroed, using this option will result in incorrect copying. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## copy-device-to-file  copy-device-to-file src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false] [append:true|false]  See copy-device-to-device'' for a general overview of this call. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## copy-file-to-device  copy-file-to-device src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false] [append:true|false]  See copy-device-to-device'' for a general overview of this call. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## copy-file-to-file  copy-file-to-file src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false] [append:true|false]  See copy-device-to-device'' for a general overview of this call. This is not the function you want for copying files. This is for copying blocks within existing files. See cp'', cp-a'' and mv'' for general file copying and moving functions. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## copy-size  copy-size src dest size  This command copies exactly "size" bytes from one source device or file "src" to another destination device or file "dest". Note this will fail if the source is too short or if the destination is not large enough. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the copy-device-to-device'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## cp  cp src dest  This copies a file from "src" to "dest" where "dest" is either a destination filename or destination directory. ## cp-a  cp-a src dest  This copies a file or directory from "src" to "dest" recursively using the "cp -a" command. ## cp-r  cp-r src dest  This copies a file or directory from "src" to "dest" recursively using the "cp -rP" command. Most users should use cp-a'' instead. This command is useful when you don't want to preserve permissions, because the target filesystem does not support it (primarily when writing to DOS FAT filesystems). ## cpio-out  cpio-out directory (cpiofile|-) [format:..]  This command packs the contents of directory and downloads it to local file "cpiofile". The optional "format" parameter can be used to select the format. Only the following formats are currently permitted: "newc" New (SVR4) portable format. This format happens to be compatible with the cpio-like format used by the Linux kernel for initramfs. This is the default format. "crc" New (SVR4) portable format with a checksum. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## dd  dd src dest  This command copies from one source device or file "src" to another destination device or file "dest". Normally you would use this to copy to or from a device or partition, for example to duplicate a filesystem. If the destination is a device, it must be as large or larger than the source file or device, otherwise the copy will fail. This command cannot do partial copies (see copy-device-to-device''). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the copy-device-to-device'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## device-index  device-index device  This function takes a device name (eg. /dev/sdb'') and returns the index of the device in the list of devices. Index numbers start from 0. The named device must exist, for example as a string returned from list-devices''. See also list-devices'', part-to-dev''. ## df  df  This command runs the "df" command to report disk space used. This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string. Use statvfs'' from programs. ## df-h  df-h  This command runs the "df -h" command to report disk space used in human-readable format. This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string. Use statvfs'' from programs. ## disk-create  disk-create filename format size [backingfile:..] [backingformat:..] [preallocation:..] [compat:..] [clustersize:N]  Create a blank disk image called filename (a host file) with format "format" (usually "raw" or "qcow2"). The size is "size" bytes. If used with the optional "backingfile" parameter, then a snapshot is created on top of the backing file. In this case, "size" must be passed as "-1". The size of the snapshot is the same as the size of the backing file, which is discovered automatically. You are encouraged to also pass "backingformat" to describe the format of "backingfile". If filename refers to a block device, then the device is formatted. The "size" is ignored since block devices have an intrinsic size. The other optional parameters are: "preallocation" If format is "raw", then this can be either "off" (or "sparse") or "full" to create a sparse or fully allocated file respectively. The default is "off". If format is "qcow2", then this can be "off" (or "sparse"), "metadata" or "full". Preallocating metadata can be faster when doing lots of writes, but uses more space. The default is "off". "compat" "qcow2" only: Pass the string 1.1 to use the advanced qcow2 format supported by qemu ≥ 1.1. "clustersize" "qcow2" only: Change the qcow2 cluster size. The default is 65536 (bytes) and this setting may be any power of two between 512 and 2097152. Note that this call does not add the new disk to the handle. You may need to call add-drive-opts'' separately. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## disk-format  disk-format filename  Detect and return the format of the disk image called filename. filename can also be a host device, etc. If the format of the image could not be detected, then "unknown" is returned. Note that detecting the disk format can be insecure under some circumstances. See CVE-2010-3851'' in guestfs(3). See also: DISK IMAGE FORMATS'' in guestfs(3) ## disk-has-backing-file  disk-has-backing-file filename  Detect and return whether the disk image filename has a backing file. Note that detecting disk features can be insecure under some circumstances. See CVE-2010-3851'' in guestfs(3). ## disk-virtual-size  disk-virtual-size filename  Detect and return the virtual size in bytes of the disk image called filename. Note that detecting disk features can be insecure under some circumstances. See CVE-2010-3851'' in guestfs(3). ## dmesg  dmesg  This returns the kernel messages ("dmesg" output) from the guest kernel. This is sometimes useful for extended debugging of problems. Another way to get the same information is to enable verbose messages with set-verbose'' or by setting the environment variable "LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1" before running the program. ## download  download remotefilename (filename|-)  Download file remotefilename and save it as filename on the local machine. filename can also be a named pipe. See also upload'', cat''. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. ## download-offset  download-offset remotefilename (filename|-) offset size  Download file remotefilename and save it as filename on the local machine. remotefilename is read for "size" bytes starting at "offset" (this region must be within the file or device). Note that there is no limit on the amount of data that can be downloaded with this call, unlike with pread'', and this call always reads the full amount unless an error occurs. See also download'', pread''. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. ## drop-caches  drop-caches whattodrop  This instructs the guest kernel to drop its page cache, and/or dentries and inode caches. The parameter "whattodrop" tells the kernel what precisely to drop, see http://linux-mm.org/Drop_Caches Setting "whattodrop" to 3 should drop everything. This automatically calls sync(2) before the operation, so that the maximum guest memory is freed. ## du  du path  This command runs the "du -s" command to estimate file space usage for "path". "path" can be a file or a directory. If "path" is a directory then the estimate includes the contents of the directory and all subdirectories (recursively). The result is the estimated size in kilobytes (ie. units of 1024 bytes). ## e2fsck  e2fsck device [correct:true|false] [forceall:true|false]  This runs the ext2/ext3 filesystem checker on "device". It can take the following optional arguments: "correct" Automatically repair the file system. This option will cause e2fsck to automatically fix any filesystem problems that can be safely fixed without human intervention. This option may not be specified at the same time as the "forceall" option. "forceall" Assume an answer of 'yes' to all questions; allows e2fsck to be used non-interactively. This option may not be specified at the same time as the "correct" option. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## e2fsck-f  e2fsck-f device  This runs "e2fsck -p -f device", ie. runs the ext2/ext3 filesystem checker on "device", noninteractively (-p), even if the filesystem appears to be clean (-f). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the e2fsck'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## echo-daemon  echo-daemon 'words ...'  This command concatenates the list of "words" passed with single spaces between them and returns the resulting string. You can use this command to test the connection through to the daemon. See also ping-daemon''. ## egrep  egrep regex path  This calls the external "egrep" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the grep'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## egrepi  egrepi regex path  This calls the external "egrep -i" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the grep'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## equal  equal file1 file2  This compares the two files file1 and file2 and returns true if their content is exactly equal, or false otherwise. The external cmp(1) program is used for the comparison. ## exists  exists path  This returns "true" if and only if there is a file, directory (or anything) with the given "path" name. See also is-file'', is-dir'', stat''. ## extlinux  extlinux directory  Install the SYSLINUX bootloader on the device mounted at directory. Unlike syslinux'' which requires a FAT filesystem, this can be used on an ext2/3/4 or btrfs filesystem. The directory parameter can be either a mountpoint, or a directory within the mountpoint. You also have to mark the partition as active'' (part-set-bootable'') and a Master Boot Record must be installed (eg. using pwrite-device'') on the first sector of the whole disk. The SYSLINUX package comes with some suitable Master Boot Records. See the extlinux(1) man page for further information. Additional configuration can be supplied to SYSLINUX by placing a file called extlinux.conf on the filesystem under directory. For further information about the contents of this file, see extlinux(1). See also syslinux''. This command depends on the feature "extlinux". See also feature-available''. ## fallocate  fallocate path len  This command preallocates a file (containing zero bytes) named "path" of size "len" bytes. If the file exists already, it is overwritten. Do not confuse this with the guestfish-specific "alloc" command which allocates a file in the host and attaches it as a device. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the fallocate64'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## fallocate64  fallocate64 path len  This command preallocates a file (containing zero bytes) named "path" of size "len" bytes. If the file exists already, it is overwritten. Note that this call allocates disk blocks for the file. To create a sparse file use truncate-size'' instead. The deprecated call fallocate'' does the same, but owing to an oversight it only allowed 30 bit lengths to be specified, effectively limiting the maximum size of files created through that call to 1GB. Do not confuse this with the guestfish-specific "alloc" and "sparse" commands which create a file in the host and attach it as a device. ## feature-available  feature-available 'groups ...'  This is the same as available'', but unlike that call it returns a simple true/false boolean result, instead of throwing an exception if a feature is not found. For other documentation see available''. ## fgrep  fgrep pattern path  This calls the external "fgrep" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the grep'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## fgrepi  fgrepi pattern path  This calls the external "fgrep -i" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the grep'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## file  file path  This call uses the standard file(1) command to determine the type or contents of the file. This call will also transparently look inside various types of compressed file. The exact command which runs is "file -zb path". Note in particular that the filename is not prepended to the output (the -b option). The output depends on the output of the underlying file(1) command and it can change in future in ways beyond our control. In other words, the output is not guaranteed by the ABI. See also: file(1), vfs-type'', lstat'', is-file'', is-blockdev'' (etc), is-zero''. ## file-architecture  file-architecture filename  This detects the architecture of the binary filename, and returns it if known. Currently defined architectures are: "i386" This string is returned for all 32 bit i386, i486, i586, i686 binaries irrespective of the precise processor requirements of the binary. "x86_64" 64 bit x86-64. "sparc" 32 bit SPARC. "sparc64" 64 bit SPARC V9 and above. "ia64" Intel Itanium. "ppc" 32 bit Power PC. "ppc64" 64 bit Power PC. "arm" 32 bit ARM. "aarch64" 64 bit ARM. Libguestfs may return other architecture strings in future. The function works on at least the following types of files: • many types of Un*x and Linux binary • many types of Un*x and Linux shared library • Windows Win32 and Win64 binaries • Windows Win32 and Win64 DLLs Win32 binaries and DLLs return "i386". Win64 binaries and DLLs return "x86_64". • Linux kernel modules • Linux new-style initrd images • some non-x86 Linux vmlinuz kernels What it can't do currently: • static libraries (libfoo.a) • Linux old-style initrd as compressed ext2 filesystem (RHEL 3) • x86 Linux vmlinuz kernels x86 vmlinuz images (bzImage format) consist of a mix of 16-, 32- and compressed code, and are horribly hard to unpack. If you want to find the architecture of a kernel, use the architecture of the associated initrd or kernel module(s) instead. ## filesize  filesize file  This command returns the size of file in bytes. To get other stats about a file, use stat'', lstat'', is-dir'', is-file'' etc. To get the size of block devices, use blockdev-getsize64''. ## filesystem-available  filesystem-available filesystem  Check whether libguestfs supports the named filesystem. The argument "filesystem" is a filesystem name, such as "ext3". You must call launch'' before using this command. This is mainly useful as a negative test. If this returns true, it doesn't mean that a particular filesystem can be created or mounted, since filesystems can fail for other reasons such as it being a later version of the filesystem, or having incompatible features, or lacking the right mkfs.<fs> tool. See also available'', feature-available'', AVAILABILITY'' in guestfs(3). ## fill  fill c len path  This command creates a new file called "path". The initial content of the file is "len" octets of "c", where "c" must be a number in the range "[0..255]". To fill a file with zero bytes (sparsely), it is much more efficient to use truncate-size''. To create a file with a pattern of repeating bytes use fill-pattern''. ## fill-dir  fill-dir dir nr  This function, useful for testing filesystems, creates "nr" empty files in the directory "dir" with names 00000000 through "nr-1" (ie. each file name is 8 digits long padded with zeroes). ## fill-pattern  fill-pattern pattern len path  This function is like fill'' except that it creates a new file of length "len" containing the repeating pattern of bytes in "pattern". The pattern is truncated if necessary to ensure the length of the file is exactly "len" bytes. ## find  find directory  This command lists out all files and directories, recursively, starting at directory. It is essentially equivalent to running the shell command "find directory -print" but some post-processing happens on the output, described below. This returns a list of strings without any prefix. Thus if the directory structure was:  /tmp/a /tmp/b /tmp/c/d  then the returned list from find'' /tmp would be 4 elements:  a b c c/d  If directory is not a directory, then this command returns an error. The returned list is sorted. ## find0  find0 directory (files|-)  This command lists out all files and directories, recursively, starting at directory, placing the resulting list in the external file called files. This command works the same way as find'' with the following exceptions: • The resulting list is written to an external file. • Items (filenames) in the result are separated by "\0" characters. See find(1) option -print0. • The result list is not sorted. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. ## findfs-label  findfs-label label  This command searches the filesystems and returns the one which has the given label. An error is returned if no such filesystem can be found. To find the label of a filesystem, use vfs-label''. ## findfs-uuid  findfs-uuid uuid  This command searches the filesystems and returns the one which has the given UUID. An error is returned if no such filesystem can be found. To find the UUID of a filesystem, use vfs-uuid''. ## fsck  fsck fstype device  This runs the filesystem checker (fsck) on "device" which should have filesystem type "fstype". The returned integer is the status. See fsck(8) for the list of status codes from "fsck". Notes: • Multiple status codes can be summed together. • A non-zero return code can mean success'', for example if errors have been corrected on the filesystem. • Checking or repairing NTFS volumes is not supported (by linux-ntfs). This command is entirely equivalent to running "fsck -a -t fstype device". ## fstrim  fstrim mountpoint [offset:N] [length:N] [minimumfreeextent:N]  Trim the free space in the filesystem mounted on "mountpoint". The filesystem must be mounted read-write. The filesystem contents are not affected, but any free space in the filesystem is trimmed'', that is, given back to the host device, thus making disk images more sparse, allowing unused space in qcow2 files to be reused, etc. This operation requires support in libguestfs, the mounted filesystem, the host filesystem, qemu and the host kernel. If this support isn't present it may give an error or even appear to run but do nothing. See also zero-free-space''. That is a slightly different operation that turns free space in the filesystem into zeroes. It is valid to call fstrim'' either instead of, or after calling zero-free-space''. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. This command depends on the feature "fstrim". See also feature-available''. ## get-append  get-append  Return the additional kernel options which are added to the libguestfs appliance kernel command line. If "NULL" then no options are added. ## get-attach-method  get-attach-method  Return the current backend. See set-backend'' and BACKEND'' in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the get-backend'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## get-autosync  get-autosync  Get the autosync flag. ## get-backend  get-backend  Return the current backend. This handle property was previously called the attach method''. See set-backend'' and BACKEND'' in guestfs(3). ## get-backend-setting  get-backend-setting name  Find a backend setting string which is either "name" or begins with "name=". If "name", this returns the string "1". If "name=", this returns the part after the equals sign (which may be an empty string). If no such setting is found, this function throws an error. The errno (see last-errno'') will be "ESRCH" in this case. See BACKEND'' in guestfs(3), BACKEND SETTINGS'' in guestfs(3). ## get-backend-settings  get-backend-settings  Return the current backend settings. This call returns all backend settings strings. If you want to find a single backend setting, see get-backend-setting''. See BACKEND'' in guestfs(3), BACKEND SETTINGS'' in guestfs(3). ## get-cachedir  get-cachedir  Get the directory used by the handle to store the appliance cache. ## get-direct  get-direct  Return the direct appliance mode flag. ## get-e2attrs  get-e2attrs file  This returns the file attributes associated with file. The attributes are a set of bits associated with each inode which affect the behaviour of the file. The attributes are returned as a string of letters (described below). The string may be empty, indicating that no file attributes are set for this file. These attributes are only present when the file is located on an ext2/3/4 filesystem. Using this call on other filesystem types will result in an error. The characters (file attributes) in the returned string are currently: 'A' When the file is accessed, its atime is not modified. 'a' The file is append-only. 'c' The file is compressed on-disk. 'D' (Directories only.) Changes to this directory are written synchronously to disk. 'd' The file is not a candidate for backup (see dump(8)). 'E' The file has compression errors. 'e' The file is using extents. 'h' The file is storing its blocks in units of the filesystem blocksize instead of sectors. 'I' (Directories only.) The directory is using hashed trees. 'i' The file is immutable. It cannot be modified, deleted or renamed. No link can be created to this file. 'j' The file is data-journaled. 's' When the file is deleted, all its blocks will be zeroed. 'S' Changes to this file are written synchronously to disk. 'T' (Directories only.) This is a hint to the block allocator that subdirectories contained in this directory should be spread across blocks. If not present, the block allocator will try to group subdirectories together. 't' For a file, this disables tail-merging. (Not used by upstream implementations of ext2.) 'u' When the file is deleted, its blocks will be saved, allowing the file to be undeleted. 'X' The raw contents of the compressed file may be accessed. 'Z' The compressed file is dirty. More file attributes may be added to this list later. Not all file attributes may be set for all kinds of files. For detailed information, consult the chattr(1) man page. See also set-e2attrs''. Don't confuse these attributes with extended attributes (see getxattr''). ## get-e2generation  get-e2generation file  This returns the ext2 file generation of a file. The generation (which used to be called the version'') is a number associated with an inode. This is most commonly used by NFS servers. The generation is only present when the file is located on an ext2/3/4 filesystem. Using this call on other filesystem types will result in an error. See set-e2generation''. ## get-e2label  get-e2label device  This returns the ext2/3/4 filesystem label of the filesystem on "device". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the vfs-label'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## get-e2uuid  get-e2uuid device  This returns the ext2/3/4 filesystem UUID of the filesystem on "device". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the vfs-uuid'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## get-hv  get-hv  Return the current hypervisor binary. This is always non-NULL. If it wasn't set already, then this will return the default qemu binary name. ## get-identifier  get-identifier  Get the handle identifier. See set-identifier''. ## get-libvirt-requested-credential-challenge  get-libvirt-requested-credential-challenge index  Get the challenge (provided by libvirt) for the "index"'th requested credential. If libvirt did not provide a challenge, this returns the empty string "". See LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION'' in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. ## get-libvirt-requested-credential-defresult  get-libvirt-requested-credential-defresult index  Get the default result (provided by libvirt) for the "index"'th requested credential. If libvirt did not provide a default result, this returns the empty string "". See LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION'' in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. ## get-libvirt-requested-credential-prompt  get-libvirt-requested-credential-prompt index  Get the prompt (provided by libvirt) for the "index"'th requested credential. If libvirt did not provide a prompt, this returns the empty string "". See LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION'' in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. ## get-libvirt-requested-credentials  get-libvirt-requested-credentials  This should only be called during the event callback for events of type "GUESTFS_EVENT_LIBVIRT_AUTH". Return the list of credentials requested by libvirt. Possible values are a subset of the strings provided when you called set-libvirt-supported-credentials''. See LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION'' in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. ## get-memsize  get-memsize  This gets the memory size in megabytes allocated to the hypervisor. If set-memsize'' was not called on this handle, and if "LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE" was not set, then this returns the compiled-in default value for memsize. For more information on the architecture of libguestfs, see guestfs(3). ## get-network  get-network  This returns the enable network flag. ## get-path  get-path  Return the current search path. This is always non-NULL. If it wasn't set already, then this will return the default path. ## get-pgroup  get-pgroup  This returns the process group flag. ## get-pid ## pid  get-pid  Return the process ID of the hypervisor. If there is no hypervisor running, then this will return an error. This is an internal call used for debugging and testing. ## get-program  get-program  Get the program name. See set-program''. ## get-qemu  get-qemu  Return the current hypervisor binary (usually qemu). This is always non-NULL. If it wasn't set already, then this will return the default qemu binary name. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the get-hv'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## get-recovery-proc  get-recovery-proc  Return the recovery process enabled flag. ## get-selinux  get-selinux  This returns the current setting of the selinux flag which is passed to the appliance at boot time. See set-selinux''. For more information on the architecture of libguestfs, see guestfs(3). ## get-smp  get-smp  This returns the number of virtual CPUs assigned to the appliance. ## get-tmpdir  get-tmpdir  Get the directory used by the handle to store temporary files. ## get-trace  get-trace  Return the command trace flag. ## get-umask  get-umask  Return the current umask. By default the umask is 022 unless it has been set by calling umask''. ## get-verbose  get-verbose  This returns the verbose messages flag. ## getcon  getcon  This gets the SELinux security context of the daemon. See the documentation about SELINUX in guestfs(3), and setcon'' This command depends on the feature "selinux". See also feature-available''. ## getxattr  getxattr path name  Get a single extended attribute from file "path" named "name". This call follows symlinks. If you want to lookup an extended attribute for the symlink itself, use lgetxattr''. Normally it is better to get all extended attributes from a file in one go by calling getxattrs''. However some Linux filesystem implementations are buggy and do not provide a way to list out attributes. For these filesystems (notably ntfs-3g) you have to know the names of the extended attributes you want in advance and call this function. Extended attribute values are blobs of binary data. If there is no extended attribute named "name", this returns an error. See also: getxattrs'', lgetxattr'', attr(5). This command depends on the feature "linuxxattrs". See also feature-available''. ## getxattrs  getxattrs path  This call lists the extended attributes of the file or directory "path". At the system call level, this is a combination of the listxattr(2) and getxattr(2) calls. See also: lgetxattrs'', attr(5). This command depends on the feature "linuxxattrs". See also feature-available''. ## glob-expand  glob-expand pattern  This command searches for all the pathnames matching "pattern" according to the wildcard expansion rules used by the shell. If no paths match, then this returns an empty list (note: not an error). It is just a wrapper around the C glob(3) function with flags "GLOB_MARK|GLOB_BRACE". See that manual page for more details. Notice that there is no equivalent command for expanding a device name (eg. /dev/sd*). Use list-devices'', list-partitions'' etc functions instead. ## grep ## grep-opts  grep regex path [extended:true|false] [fixed:true|false] [insensitive:true|false] [compressed:true|false]  This calls the external "grep" program and returns the matching lines. The optional flags are: "extended" Use extended regular expressions. This is the same as using the -E flag. "fixed" Match fixed (don't use regular expressions). This is the same as using the -F flag. "insensitive" Match case-insensitive. This is the same as using the -i flag. "compressed" Use "zgrep" instead of "grep". This allows the input to be compress- or gzip-compressed. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). ## grepi  grepi regex path  This calls the external "grep -i" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the grep'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## grub-install  grub-install root device  This command installs GRUB 1 (the Grand Unified Bootloader) on "device", with the root directory being "root". Notes: • There is currently no way in the API to install grub2, which is used by most modern Linux guests. It is possible to run the grub2 command from the guest, although see the caveats in RUNNING COMMANDS'' in guestfs(3). • This uses "grub-install" from the host. Unfortunately grub is not always compatible with itself, so this only works in rather narrow circumstances. Careful testing with each guest version is advisable. • If grub-install reports the error No suitable drive was found in the generated device map.'' it may be that you need to create a /boot/grub/device.map file first that contains the mapping between grub device names and Linux device names. It is usually sufficient to create a file containing:  (hd0) /dev/vda  replacing /dev/vda with the name of the installation device. This command depends on the feature "grub". See also feature-available''. ## head  head path  This command returns up to the first 10 lines of a file as a list of strings. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). ## head-n  head-n nrlines path  If the parameter "nrlines" is a positive number, this returns the first "nrlines" lines of the file "path". If the parameter "nrlines" is a negative number, this returns lines from the file "path", excluding the last "nrlines" lines. If the parameter "nrlines" is zero, this returns an empty list. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). ## hexdump  hexdump path  This runs "hexdump -C" on the given "path". The result is the human-readable, canonical hex dump of the file. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). ## hivex-close  hivex-close  Close the current hivex handle. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-commit  hivex-commit filename  Commit (write) changes to the hive. If the optional filename parameter is null, then the changes are written back to the same hive that was opened. If this is not null then they are written to the alternate filename given and the original hive is left untouched. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-node-add-child  hivex-node-add-child parent name  Add a child node to "parent" named "name". This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-node-children  hivex-node-children nodeh  Return the list of nodes which are subkeys of "nodeh". This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-node-delete-child  hivex-node-delete-child nodeh  Delete "nodeh", recursively if necessary. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-node-get-child  hivex-node-get-child nodeh name  Return the child of "nodeh" with the name "name", if it exists. This can return 0 meaning the name was not found. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-node-get-value  hivex-node-get-value nodeh key  Return the value attached to "nodeh" which has the name "key", if it exists. This can return 0 meaning the key was not found. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-node-name  hivex-node-name nodeh  Return the name of "nodeh". This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-node-parent  hivex-node-parent nodeh  Return the parent node of "nodeh". This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-node-set-value  hivex-node-set-value nodeh key t val  Set or replace a single value under the node "nodeh". The "key" is the name, "t" is the type, and "val" is the data. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-node-values  hivex-node-values nodeh  Return the array of (key, datatype, data) tuples attached to "nodeh". This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-open  hivex-open filename [verbose:true|false] [debug:true|false] [write:true|false]  Open the Windows Registry hive file named filename. If there was any previous hivex handle associated with this guestfs session, then it is closed. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-root  hivex-root  Return the root node of the hive. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-value-key  hivex-value-key valueh  Return the key (name) field of a (key, datatype, data) tuple. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-value-type  hivex-value-type valueh  Return the data type field from a (key, datatype, data) tuple. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-value-utf8  hivex-value-utf8 valueh  This calls hivex-value-value'' (which returns the data field from a hivex value tuple). It then assumes that the field is a UTF-16LE string and converts the result to UTF-8 (or if this is not possible, it returns an error). This is useful for reading strings out of the Windows registry. However it is not foolproof because the registry is not strongly-typed and fields can contain arbitrary or unexpected data. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## hivex-value-value  hivex-value-value valueh  Return the data field of a (key, datatype, data) tuple. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. See also: hivex-value-utf8''. This command depends on the feature "hivex". See also feature-available''. ## initrd-cat  initrd-cat initrdpath filename  This command unpacks the file filename from the initrd file called initrdpath. The filename must be given without the initial / character. For example, in guestfish you could use the following command to examine the boot script (usually called /init) contained in a Linux initrd or initramfs image:  initrd-cat /boot/initrd-<version>.img init  See also initrd-list''. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). ## initrd-list  initrd-list path  This command lists out files contained in an initrd. The files are listed without any initial / character. The files are listed in the order they appear (not necessarily alphabetical). Directory names are listed as separate items. Old Linux kernels (2.4 and earlier) used a compressed ext2 filesystem as initrd. We only support the newer initramfs format (compressed cpio files). ## inotify-add-watch  inotify-add-watch path mask  Watch "path" for the events listed in "mask". Note that if "path" is a directory then events within that directory are watched, but this does not happen recursively (in subdirectories). Note for non-C or non-Linux callers: the inotify events are defined by the Linux kernel ABI and are listed in /usr/include/sys/inotify.h. This command depends on the feature "inotify". See also feature-available''. ## inotify-close  inotify-close  This closes the inotify handle which was previously opened by inotify_init. It removes all watches, throws away any pending events, and deallocates all resources. This command depends on the feature "inotify". See also feature-available''. ## inotify-files  inotify-files  This function is a helpful wrapper around inotify-read'' which just returns a list of pathnames of objects that were touched. The returned pathnames are sorted and deduplicated. This command depends on the feature "inotify". See also feature-available''. ## inotify-init  inotify-init maxevents  This command creates a new inotify handle. The inotify subsystem can be used to notify events which happen to objects in the guest filesystem. "maxevents" is the maximum number of events which will be queued up between calls to inotify-read'' or inotify-files''. If this is passed as 0, then the kernel (or previously set) default is used. For Linux 2.6.29 the default was 16384 events. Beyond this limit, the kernel throws away events, but records the fact that it threw them away by setting a flag "IN_Q_OVERFLOW" in the returned structure list (see inotify-read''). Before any events are generated, you have to add some watches to the internal watch list. See: inotify-add-watch'' and inotify-rm-watch''. Queued up events should be read periodically by calling inotify-read'' (or inotify-files'' which is just a helpful wrapper around inotify-read''). If you don't read the events out often enough then you risk the internal queue overflowing. The handle should be closed after use by calling inotify-close''. This also removes any watches automatically. See also inotify(7) for an overview of the inotify interface as exposed by the Linux kernel, which is roughly what we expose via libguestfs. Note that there is one global inotify handle per libguestfs instance. This command depends on the feature "inotify". See also feature-available''. ## inotify-read  inotify-read  Return the complete queue of events that have happened since the previous read call. If no events have happened, this returns an empty list. Note: In order to make sure that all events have been read, you must call this function repeatedly until it returns an empty list. The reason is that the call will read events up to the maximum appliance-to-host message size and leave remaining events in the queue. This command depends on the feature "inotify". See also feature-available''. ## inotify-rm-watch  inotify-rm-watch wd  Remove a previously defined inotify watch. See inotify-add-watch''. This command depends on the feature "inotify". See also feature-available''. ## inspect-get-arch  inspect-get-arch root  This returns the architecture of the inspected operating system. The possible return values are listed under file-architecture''. If the architecture could not be determined, then the string "unknown" is returned. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-get-distro  inspect-get-distro root  This returns the distro (distribution) of the inspected operating system. Currently defined distros are: "alpinelinux" Alpine Linux. "altlinux" ALT Linux. "archlinux" Arch Linux. "buildroot" Buildroot-derived distro, but not one we specifically recognize. "centos" CentOS. "cirros" Cirros. "coreos" CoreOS. "debian" Debian. "fedora" Fedora. "freebsd" FreeBSD. "freedos" FreeDOS. "frugalware" Frugalware. "gentoo" Gentoo. "linuxmint" Linux Mint. "mageia" Mageia. "mandriva" Mandriva. "meego" MeeGo. "netbsd" NetBSD. "openbsd" OpenBSD. "opensuse" OpenSUSE. "oraclelinux" Oracle Linux. "pardus" Pardus. "pldlinux" PLD Linux. "redhat-based" Some Red Hat-derived distro. "rhel" Red Hat Enterprise Linux. "scientificlinux" Scientific Linux. "slackware" Slackware. "sles" SuSE Linux Enterprise Server or Desktop. "suse-based" Some openSuSE-derived distro. "ttylinux" ttylinux. "ubuntu" Ubuntu. "unknown" The distro could not be determined. "windows" Windows does not have distributions. This string is returned if the OS type is Windows. Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings here. The caller should be prepared to handle any string. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-get-drive-mappings  inspect-get-drive-mappings root  This call is useful for Windows which uses a primitive system of assigning drive letters (like C:\) to partitions. This inspection API examines the Windows Registry to find out how disks/partitions are mapped to drive letters, and returns a hash table as in the example below:  C => /dev/vda2 E => /dev/vdb1 F => /dev/vdc1  Note that keys are drive letters. For Windows, the key is case insensitive and just contains the drive letter, without the customary colon separator character. In future we may support other operating systems that also used drive letters, but the keys for those might not be case insensitive and might be longer than 1 character. For example in OS-9, hard drives were named "h0", "h1" etc. For Windows guests, currently only hard drive mappings are returned. Removable disks (eg. DVD-ROMs) are ignored. For guests that do not use drive mappings, or if the drive mappings could not be determined, this returns an empty hash table. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. See also inspect-get-mountpoints'', inspect-get-filesystems''. ## inspect-get-filesystems  inspect-get-filesystems root  This returns a list of all the filesystems that we think are associated with this operating system. This includes the root filesystem, other ordinary filesystems, and non-mounted devices like swap partitions. In the case of a multi-boot virtual machine, it is possible for a filesystem to be shared between operating systems. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. See also inspect-get-mountpoints''. ## inspect-get-format  inspect-get-format root  This returns the format of the inspected operating system. You can use it to detect install images, live CDs and similar. Currently defined formats are: "installed" This is an installed operating system. "installer" The disk image being inspected is not an installed operating system, but a bootable install disk, live CD, or similar. "unknown" The format of this disk image is not known. Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings here. The caller should be prepared to handle any string. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-get-hostname  inspect-get-hostname root  This function returns the hostname of the operating system as found by inspection of the guest's configuration files. If the hostname could not be determined, then the string "unknown" is returned. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-get-icon  inspect-get-icon root [favicon:true|false] [highquality:true|false]  This function returns an icon corresponding to the inspected operating system. The icon is returned as a buffer containing a PNG image (re-encoded to PNG if necessary). If it was not possible to get an icon this function returns a zero-length (non-NULL) buffer. Callers must check for this case. Libguestfs will start by looking for a file called /etc/favicon.png or C:\etc\favicon.png and if it has the correct format, the contents of this file will be returned. You can disable favicons by passing the optional "favicon" boolean as false (default is true). If finding the favicon fails, then we look in other places in the guest for a suitable icon. If the optional "highquality" boolean is true then only high quality icons are returned, which means only icons of high resolution with an alpha channel. The default (false) is to return any icon we can, even if it is of substandard quality. Notes: • Unlike most other inspection API calls, the guest's disks must be mounted up before you call this, since it needs to read information from the guest filesystem during the call. • Security: The icon data comes from the untrusted guest, and should be treated with caution. PNG files have been known to contain exploits. Ensure that libpng (or other relevant libraries) are fully up to date before trying to process or display the icon. • The PNG image returned can be any size. It might not be square. Libguestfs tries to return the largest, highest quality icon available. The application must scale the icon to the required size. • Extracting icons from Windows guests requires the external "wrestool" program from the "icoutils" package, and several programs ("bmptopnm", "pnmtopng", "pamcut") from the "netpbm" package. These must be installed separately. • Operating system icons are usually trademarks. Seek legal advice before using trademarks in applications. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## inspect-get-major-version  inspect-get-major-version root  This returns the major version number of the inspected operating system. Windows uses a consistent versioning scheme which is not reflected in the popular public names used by the operating system. Notably the operating system known as Windows 7'' is really version 6.1 (ie. major = 6, minor = 1). You can find out the real versions corresponding to releases of Windows by consulting Wikipedia or MSDN. If the version could not be determined, then 0 is returned. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-get-minor-version  inspect-get-minor-version root  This returns the minor version number of the inspected operating system. If the version could not be determined, then 0 is returned. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. See also inspect-get-major-version''. ## inspect-get-mountpoints  inspect-get-mountpoints root  This returns a hash of where we think the filesystems associated with this operating system should be mounted. Callers should note that this is at best an educated guess made by reading configuration files such as /etc/fstab. In particular note that this may return filesystems which are non-existent or not mountable and callers should be prepared to handle or ignore failures if they try to mount them. Each element in the returned hashtable has a key which is the path of the mountpoint (eg. /boot) and a value which is the filesystem that would be mounted there (eg. /dev/sda1). Non-mounted devices such as swap devices are not returned in this list. For operating systems like Windows which still use drive letters, this call will only return an entry for the first drive mounted on'' /. For information about the mapping of drive letters to partitions, see inspect-get-drive-mappings''. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. See also inspect-get-filesystems''. ## inspect-get-package-format  inspect-get-package-format root  This function and inspect-get-package-management'' return the package format and package management tool used by the inspected operating system. For example for Fedora these functions would return "rpm" (package format), and "yum" or "dnf" (package management). This returns the string "unknown" if we could not determine the package format or if the operating system does not have a real packaging system (eg. Windows). Possible strings include: "rpm", "deb", "ebuild", "pisi", "pacman", "pkgsrc", "apk". Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-get-package-management  inspect-get-package-management root  inspect-get-package-format'' and this function return the package format and package management tool used by the inspected operating system. For example for Fedora these functions would return "rpm" (package format), and "yum" or "dnf" (package management). This returns the string "unknown" if we could not determine the package management tool or if the operating system does not have a real packaging system (eg. Windows). Possible strings include: "yum", "dnf", "up2date", "apt" (for all Debian derivatives), "portage", "pisi", "pacman", "urpmi", "zypper", "apk". Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-get-product-name  inspect-get-product-name root  This returns the product name of the inspected operating system. The product name is generally some freeform string which can be displayed to the user, but should not be parsed by programs. If the product name could not be determined, then the string "unknown" is returned. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-get-product-variant  inspect-get-product-variant root  This returns the product variant of the inspected operating system. For Windows guests, this returns the contents of the Registry key "HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion" "InstallationType" which is usually a string such as "Client" or "Server" (other values are possible). This can be used to distinguish consumer and enterprise versions of Windows that have the same version number (for example, Windows 7 and Windows 2008 Server are both version 6.1, but the former is "Client" and the latter is "Server"). For enterprise Linux guests, in future we intend this to return the product variant such as "Desktop", "Server" and so on. But this is not implemented at present. If the product variant could not be determined, then the string "unknown" is returned. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. See also inspect-get-product-name'', inspect-get-major-version''. ## inspect-get-roots  inspect-get-roots  This function is a convenient way to get the list of root devices, as returned from a previous call to inspect-os'', but without redoing the whole inspection process. This returns an empty list if either no root devices were found or the caller has not called inspect-os''. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-get-type  inspect-get-type root  This returns the type of the inspected operating system. Currently defined types are: "linux" Any Linux-based operating system. "windows" Any Microsoft Windows operating system. "freebsd" FreeBSD. "netbsd" NetBSD. "openbsd" OpenBSD. "hurd" GNU/Hurd. "dos" MS-DOS, FreeDOS and others. "minix" MINIX. "unknown" The operating system type could not be determined. Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings here. The caller should be prepared to handle any string. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-get-windows-current-control-set  inspect-get-windows-current-control-set root  This returns the Windows CurrentControlSet of the inspected guest. The CurrentControlSet is a registry key name such as "ControlSet001". This call assumes that the guest is Windows and that the Registry could be examined by inspection. If this is not the case then an error is returned. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-get-windows-systemroot  inspect-get-windows-systemroot root  This returns the Windows systemroot of the inspected guest. The systemroot is a directory path such as /WINDOWS. This call assumes that the guest is Windows and that the systemroot could be determined by inspection. If this is not the case then an error is returned. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-is-live  inspect-is-live root  If inspect-get-format'' returns "installer" (this is an install disk), then this returns true if a live image was detected on the disk. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-is-multipart  inspect-is-multipart root  If inspect-get-format'' returns "installer" (this is an install disk), then this returns true if the disk is part of a set. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-is-netinst  inspect-is-netinst root  If inspect-get-format'' returns "installer" (this is an install disk), then this returns true if the disk is a network installer, ie. not a self-contained install CD but one which is likely to require network access to complete the install. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-list-applications  inspect-list-applications root  Return the list of applications installed in the operating system. Note: This call works differently from other parts of the inspection API. You have to call inspect-os'', then inspect-get-mountpoints'', then mount up the disks, before calling this. Listing applications is a significantly more difficult operation which requires access to the full filesystem. Also note that unlike the other inspect-get-*'' calls which are just returning data cached in the libguestfs handle, this call actually reads parts of the mounted filesystems during the call. This returns an empty list if the inspection code was not able to determine the list of applications. The application structure contains the following fields: "app_name" The name of the application. For Red Hat-derived and Debian-derived Linux guests, this is the package name. "app_display_name" The display name of the application, sometimes localized to the install language of the guest operating system. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". Callers needing to display something can use "app_name" instead. "app_epoch" For package managers which use epochs, this contains the epoch of the package (an integer). If unavailable, this is returned as 0. "app_version" The version string of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_release" The release string of the application or package, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_install_path" The installation path of the application (on operating systems such as Windows which use installation paths). This path is in the format used by the guest operating system, it is not a libguestfs path. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_trans_path" The install path translated into a libguestfs path. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_publisher" The name of the publisher of the application, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_url" The URL (eg. upstream URL) of the application. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_source_package" For packaging systems which support this, the name of the source package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_summary" A short (usually one line) description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_description" A longer description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the inspect-list-applications2'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## inspect-list-applications2  inspect-list-applications2 root  Return the list of applications installed in the operating system. Note: This call works differently from other parts of the inspection API. You have to call inspect-os'', then inspect-get-mountpoints'', then mount up the disks, before calling this. Listing applications is a significantly more difficult operation which requires access to the full filesystem. Also note that unlike the other inspect-get-*'' calls which are just returning data cached in the libguestfs handle, this call actually reads parts of the mounted filesystems during the call. This returns an empty list if the inspection code was not able to determine the list of applications. The application structure contains the following fields: "app2_name" The name of the application. For Red Hat-derived and Debian-derived Linux guests, this is the package name. "app2_display_name" The display name of the application, sometimes localized to the install language of the guest operating system. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". Callers needing to display something can use "app2_name" instead. "app2_epoch" For package managers which use epochs, this contains the epoch of the package (an integer). If unavailable, this is returned as 0. "app2_version" The version string of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_release" The release string of the application or package, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_arch" The architecture string of the application or package, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_install_path" The installation path of the application (on operating systems such as Windows which use installation paths). This path is in the format used by the guest operating system, it is not a libguestfs path. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_trans_path" The install path translated into a libguestfs path. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_publisher" The name of the publisher of the application, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_url" The URL (eg. upstream URL) of the application. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_source_package" For packaging systems which support this, the name of the source package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_summary" A short (usually one line) description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_description" A longer description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. ## inspect-os  inspect-os  This function uses other libguestfs functions and certain heuristics to inspect the disk(s) (usually disks belonging to a virtual machine), looking for operating systems. The list returned is empty if no operating systems were found. If one operating system was found, then this returns a list with a single element, which is the name of the root filesystem of this operating system. It is also possible for this function to return a list containing more than one element, indicating a dual-boot or multi-boot virtual machine, with each element being the root filesystem of one of the operating systems. You can pass the root string(s) returned to other inspect-get-*'' functions in order to query further information about each operating system, such as the name and version. This function uses other libguestfs features such as mount-ro'' and umount-all'' in order to mount and unmount filesystems and look at the contents. This should be called with no disks currently mounted. The function may also use Augeas, so any existing Augeas handle will be closed. This function cannot decrypt encrypted disks. The caller must do that first (supplying the necessary keys) if the disk is encrypted. Please read INSPECTION'' in guestfs(3) for more details. See also list-filesystems''. ## is-blockdev ## is-blockdev-opts  is-blockdev path [followsymlinks:true|false]  This returns "true" if and only if there is a block device with the given "path" name. If the optional flag "followsymlinks" is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a block device also causes the function to return true. This call only looks at files within the guest filesystem. Libguestfs partitions and block devices (eg. /dev/sda) cannot be used as the "path" parameter of this call. See also stat''. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## is-chardev ## is-chardev-opts  is-chardev path [followsymlinks:true|false]  This returns "true" if and only if there is a character device with the given "path" name. If the optional flag "followsymlinks" is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a chardev also causes the function to return true. See also stat''. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## is-config  is-config  This returns true iff this handle is being configured (in the "CONFIG" state). For more information on states, see guestfs(3). ## is-dir ## is-dir-opts  is-dir path [followsymlinks:true|false]  This returns "true" if and only if there is a directory with the given "path" name. Note that it returns false for other objects like files. If the optional flag "followsymlinks" is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a directory also causes the function to return true. See also stat''. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## is-fifo ## is-fifo-opts  is-fifo path [followsymlinks:true|false]  This returns "true" if and only if there is a FIFO (named pipe) with the given "path" name. If the optional flag "followsymlinks" is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a FIFO also causes the function to return true. See also stat''. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## is-file ## is-file-opts  is-file path [followsymlinks:true|false]  This returns "true" if and only if there is a regular file with the given "path" name. Note that it returns false for other objects like directories. If the optional flag "followsymlinks" is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a file also causes the function to return true. See also stat''. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## is-lv  is-lv device  This command tests whether "device" is a logical volume, and returns true iff this is the case. ## is-socket ## is-socket-opts  is-socket path [followsymlinks:true|false]  This returns "true" if and only if there is a Unix domain socket with the given "path" name. If the optional flag "followsymlinks" is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a socket also causes the function to return true. See also stat''. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## is-symlink  is-symlink path  This returns "true" if and only if there is a symbolic link with the given "path" name. See also stat''. ## is-whole-device  is-whole-device device  This returns "true" if and only if "device" refers to a whole block device. That is, not a partition or a logical device. ## is-zero  is-zero path  This returns true iff the file exists and the file is empty or it contains all zero bytes. ## is-zero-device  is-zero-device device  This returns true iff the device exists and contains all zero bytes. Note that for large devices this can take a long time to run. ## isoinfo  isoinfo isofile  This is the same as isoinfo-device'' except that it works for an ISO file located inside some other mounted filesystem. Note that in the common case where you have added an ISO file as a libguestfs device, you would not call this. Instead you would call isoinfo-device''. ## isoinfo-device  isoinfo-device device  "device" is an ISO device. This returns a struct of information read from the primary volume descriptor (the ISO equivalent of the superblock) of the device. Usually it is more efficient to use the isoinfo(1) command with the -d option on the host to analyze ISO files, instead of going through libguestfs. For information on the primary volume descriptor fields, see http://wiki.osdev.org/ISO_9660#The_Primary_Volume_Descriptor ## journal-close  journal-close  Close the journal handle. This command depends on the feature "journal". See also feature-available''. ## journal-get  journal-get  Read the current journal entry. This returns all the fields in the journal as a set of "(attrname, attrval)" pairs. The "attrname" is the field name (a string). The "attrval" is the field value (a binary blob, often but not always a string). Please note that "attrval" is a byte array, not a \0-terminated C string. The length of data may be truncated to the data threshold (see: journal-set-data-threshold'', journal-get-data-threshold''). If you set the data threshold to unlimited (0) then this call can read a journal entry of any size, ie. it is not limited by the libguestfs protocol. This command depends on the feature "journal". See also feature-available''. ## journal-get-data-threshold  journal-get-data-threshold  Get the current data threshold for reading journal entries. This is a hint to the journal that it may truncate data fields to this size when reading them (note also that it may not truncate them). If this returns 0, then the threshold is unlimited. See also journal-set-data-threshold''. This command depends on the feature "journal". See also feature-available''. ## journal-get-realtime-usec  journal-get-realtime-usec  Get the realtime (wallclock) timestamp of the current journal entry. This command depends on the feature "journal". See also feature-available''. ## journal-next  journal-next  Move to the next journal entry. You have to call this at least once after opening the handle before you are able to read data. The returned boolean tells you if there are any more journal records to read. "true" means you can read the next record (eg. using journal-get''), and "false" means you have reached the end of the journal. This command depends on the feature "journal". See also feature-available''. ## journal-open  journal-open directory  Open the systemd journal located in directory. Any previously opened journal handle is closed. The contents of the journal can be read using journal-next'' and journal-get''. After you have finished using the journal, you should close the handle by calling journal-close''. This command depends on the feature "journal". See also feature-available''. ## journal-set-data-threshold  journal-set-data-threshold threshold  Set the data threshold for reading journal entries. This is a hint to the journal that it may truncate data fields to this size when reading them (note also that it may not truncate them). If you set this to 0, then the threshold is unlimited. See also journal-get-data-threshold''. This command depends on the feature "journal". See also feature-available''. ## journal-skip  journal-skip skip  Skip forwards ("skip ≥ 0") or backwards ("skip < 0") in the journal. The number of entries actually skipped is returned (note "rskip ≥ 0"). If this is not the same as the absolute value of the skip parameter ("|skip|") you passed in then it means you have reached the end or the start of the journal. This command depends on the feature "journal". See also feature-available''. ## kill-subprocess  kill-subprocess  This kills the hypervisor. Do not call this. See: shutdown'' instead. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the shutdown'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## launch ## run  launch  You should call this after configuring the handle (eg. adding drives) but before performing any actions. Do not call launch'' twice on the same handle. Although it will not give an error (for historical reasons), the precise behaviour when you do this is not well defined. Handles are very cheap to create, so create a new one for each launch. ## lchown  lchown owner group path  Change the file owner to "owner" and group to "group". This is like chown'' but if "path" is a symlink then the link itself is changed, not the target. Only numeric uid and gid are supported. If you want to use names, you will need to locate and parse the password file yourself (Augeas support makes this relatively easy). ## ldmtool-create-all  ldmtool-create-all  This function scans all block devices looking for Windows dynamic disk volumes and partitions, and creates devices for any that were found. Call list-ldm-volumes'' and list-ldm-partitions'' to return all devices. Note that you don't normally need to call this explicitly, since it is done automatically at launch'' time. However you might want to call this function if you have hotplugged disks or have just created a Windows dynamic disk. This command depends on the feature "ldm". See also feature-available''. ## ldmtool-diskgroup-disks  ldmtool-diskgroup-disks diskgroup  Return the disks in a Windows dynamic disk group. The "diskgroup" parameter should be the GUID of a disk group, one element from the list returned by ldmtool-scan''. This command depends on the feature "ldm". See also feature-available''. ## ldmtool-diskgroup-name  ldmtool-diskgroup-name diskgroup  Return the name of a Windows dynamic disk group. The "diskgroup" parameter should be the GUID of a disk group, one element from the list returned by ldmtool-scan''. This command depends on the feature "ldm". See also feature-available''. ## ldmtool-diskgroup-volumes  ldmtool-diskgroup-volumes diskgroup  Return the volumes in a Windows dynamic disk group. The "diskgroup" parameter should be the GUID of a disk group, one element from the list returned by ldmtool-scan''. This command depends on the feature "ldm". See also feature-available''. ## ldmtool-remove-all  ldmtool-remove-all  This is essentially the opposite of ldmtool-create-all''. It removes the device mapper mappings for all Windows dynamic disk volumes This command depends on the feature "ldm". See also feature-available''. ## ldmtool-scan  ldmtool-scan  This function scans for Windows dynamic disks. It returns a list of identifiers (GUIDs) for all disk groups that were found. These identifiers can be passed to other ldmtool-*'' functions. This function scans all block devices. To scan a subset of block devices, call ldmtool-scan-devices'' instead. This command depends on the feature "ldm". See also feature-available''. ## ldmtool-scan-devices  ldmtool-scan-devices 'devices ...'  This function scans for Windows dynamic disks. It returns a list of identifiers (GUIDs) for all disk groups that were found. These identifiers can be passed to other ldmtool-*'' functions. The parameter "devices" is a list of block devices which are scanned. If this list is empty, all block devices are scanned. This command depends on the feature "ldm". See also feature-available''. ## ldmtool-volume-hint  ldmtool-volume-hint diskgroup volume  Return the hint field of the volume named "volume" in the disk group with GUID "diskgroup". This may not be defined, in which case the empty string is returned. The hint field is often, though not always, the name of a Windows drive, eg. "E:". This command depends on the feature "ldm". See also feature-available''. ## ldmtool-volume-partitions  ldmtool-volume-partitions diskgroup volume  Return the list of partitions in the volume named "volume" in the disk group with GUID "diskgroup". This command depends on the feature "ldm". See also feature-available''. ## ldmtool-volume-type  ldmtool-volume-type diskgroup volume  Return the type of the volume named "volume" in the disk group with GUID "diskgroup". Possible volume types that can be returned here include: "simple", "spanned", "striped", "mirrored", "raid5". Other types may also be returned. This command depends on the feature "ldm". See also feature-available''. ## lgetxattr  lgetxattr path name  Get a single extended attribute from file "path" named "name". If "path" is a symlink, then this call returns an extended attribute from the symlink. Normally it is better to get all extended attributes from a file in one go by calling getxattrs''. However some Linux filesystem implementations are buggy and do not provide a way to list out attributes. For these filesystems (notably ntfs-3g) you have to know the names of the extended attributes you want in advance and call this function. Extended attribute values are blobs of binary data. If there is no extended attribute named "name", this returns an error. See also: lgetxattrs'', getxattr'', attr(5). This command depends on the feature "linuxxattrs". See also feature-available''. ## lgetxattrs  lgetxattrs path  This is the same as getxattrs'', but if "path" is a symbolic link, then it returns the extended attributes of the link itself. This command depends on the feature "linuxxattrs". See also feature-available''. ## list-9p  list-9p  List all 9p filesystems attached to the guest. A list of mount tags is returned. ## list-devices  list-devices  List all the block devices. The full block device names are returned, eg. /dev/sda. See also list-filesystems''. ## list-disk-labels  list-disk-labels  If you add drives using the optional "label" parameter of add-drive-opts'', you can use this call to map between disk labels, and raw block device and partition names (like /dev/sda and /dev/sda1). This returns a hashtable, where keys are the disk labels (without the /dev/disk/guestfs prefix), and the values are the full raw block device and partition names (eg. /dev/sda and /dev/sda1). ## list-dm-devices  list-dm-devices  List all device mapper devices. The returned list contains /dev/mapper/* devices, eg. ones created by a previous call to luks-open''. Device mapper devices which correspond to logical volumes are not returned in this list. Call lvs'' if you want to list logical volumes. ## list-filesystems  list-filesystems  This inspection command looks for filesystems on partitions, block devices and logical volumes, returning a list of "mountables" containing filesystems and their type. The return value is a hash, where the keys are the devices containing filesystems, and the values are the filesystem types. For example:  "/dev/sda1" => "ntfs" "/dev/sda2" => "ext2" "/dev/vg_guest/lv_root" => "ext4" "/dev/vg_guest/lv_swap" => "swap"  The key is not necessarily a block device. It may also be an opaque 'mountable' string which can be passed to mount''. The value can have the special value unknown'', meaning the content of the device is undetermined or empty. swap'' means a Linux swap partition. This command runs other libguestfs commands, which might include mount'' and umount'', and therefore you should use this soon after launch and only when nothing is mounted. Not all of the filesystems returned will be mountable. In particular, swap partitions are returned in the list. Also this command does not check that each filesystem found is valid and mountable, and some filesystems might be mountable but require special options. Filesystems may not all belong to a single logical operating system (use inspect-os'' to look for OSes). ## list-ldm-partitions  list-ldm-partitions  This function returns all Windows dynamic disk partitions that were found at launch time. It returns a list of device names. This command depends on the feature "ldm". See also feature-available''. ## list-ldm-volumes  list-ldm-volumes  This function returns all Windows dynamic disk volumes that were found at launch time. It returns a list of device names. This command depends on the feature "ldm". See also feature-available''. ## list-md-devices  list-md-devices  List all Linux md devices. ## list-partitions  list-partitions  List all the partitions detected on all block devices. The full partition device names are returned, eg. /dev/sda1 This does not return logical volumes. For that you will need to call lvs''. See also list-filesystems''. ## ll  ll directory  List the files in directory (relative to the root directory, there is no cwd) in the format of 'ls -la'. This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string. ## llz  llz directory  List the files in directory in the format of 'ls -laZ'. This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string. ## ln  ln target linkname  This command creates a hard link using the "ln" command. ## ln-f  ln-f target linkname  This command creates a hard link using the "ln -f" command. The -f option removes the link ("linkname") if it exists already. ## ln-s  ln-s target linkname  This command creates a symbolic link using the "ln -s" command. ## ln-sf  ln-sf target linkname  This command creates a symbolic link using the "ln -sf" command, The -f option removes the link ("linkname") if it exists already. ## lremovexattr  lremovexattr xattr path  This is the same as removexattr'', but if "path" is a symbolic link, then it removes an extended attribute of the link itself. This command depends on the feature "linuxxattrs". See also feature-available''. ## ls  ls directory  List the files in directory (relative to the root directory, there is no cwd). The '.' and '..' entries are not returned, but hidden files are shown. ## ls0  ls0 dir (filenames|-)  This specialized command is used to get a listing of the filenames in the directory "dir". The list of filenames is written to the local file filenames (on the host). In the output file, the filenames are separated by "\0" characters. "." and ".." are not returned. The filenames are not sorted. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. ## lsetxattr  lsetxattr xattr val vallen path  This is the same as setxattr'', but if "path" is a symbolic link, then it sets an extended attribute of the link itself. This command depends on the feature "linuxxattrs". See also feature-available''. ## lstat  lstat path  Returns file information for the given "path". This is the same as stat'' except that if "path" is a symbolic link, then the link is stat-ed, not the file it refers to. This is the same as the lstat(2) system call. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the lstatns'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## lstatlist  lstatlist path 'names ...'  This call allows you to perform the lstat'' operation on multiple files, where all files are in the directory "path". "names" is the list of files from this directory. On return you get a list of stat structs, with a one-to-one correspondence to the "names" list. If any name did not exist or could not be lstat'd, then the "st_ino" field of that structure is set to "-1". This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. See also lxattrlist'' for a similarly efficient call for getting extended attributes. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the lstatnslist'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## lstatns  lstatns path  Returns file information for the given "path". This is the same as statns'' except that if "path" is a symbolic link, then the link is stat-ed, not the file it refers to. This is the same as the lstat(2) system call. ## lstatnslist  lstatnslist path 'names ...'  This call allows you to perform the lstatns'' operation on multiple files, where all files are in the directory "path". "names" is the list of files from this directory. On return you get a list of stat structs, with a one-to-one correspondence to the "names" list. If any name did not exist or could not be lstat'd, then the "st_ino" field of that structure is set to "-1". This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. See also lxattrlist'' for a similarly efficient call for getting extended attributes. ## luks-add-key  luks-add-key device keyslot  This command adds a new key on LUKS device "device". "key" is any existing key, and is used to access the device. "newkey" is the new key to add. "keyslot" is the key slot that will be replaced. Note that if "keyslot" already contains a key, then this command will fail. You have to use luks-kill-slot'' first to remove that key. This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately. This command depends on the feature "luks". See also feature-available''. ## luks-close  luks-close device  This closes a LUKS device that was created earlier by luks-open'' or luks-open-ro''. The "device" parameter must be the name of the LUKS mapping device (ie. /dev/mapper/mapname) and not the name of the underlying block device. This command depends on the feature "luks". See also feature-available''. ## luks-format  luks-format device keyslot  This command erases existing data on "device" and formats the device as a LUKS encrypted device. "key" is the initial key, which is added to key slot "slot". (LUKS supports 8 key slots, numbered 0-7). This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately. This command depends on the feature "luks". See also feature-available''. ## luks-format-cipher  luks-format-cipher device keyslot cipher  This command is the same as luks-format'' but it also allows you to set the "cipher" used. This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately. This command depends on the feature "luks". See also feature-available''. ## luks-kill-slot  luks-kill-slot device keyslot  This command deletes the key in key slot "keyslot" from the encrypted LUKS device "device". "key" must be one of the other keys. This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately. This command depends on the feature "luks". See also feature-available''. ## luks-open  luks-open device mapname  This command opens a block device which has been encrypted according to the Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) standard. "device" is the encrypted block device or partition. The caller must supply one of the keys associated with the LUKS block device, in the "key" parameter. This creates a new block device called /dev/mapper/mapname. Reads and writes to this block device are decrypted from and encrypted to the underlying "device" respectively. If this block device contains LVM volume groups, then calling vgscan'' followed by vg-activate-all'' will make them visible. Use list-dm-devices'' to list all device mapper devices. This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately. This command depends on the feature "luks". See also feature-available''. ## luks-open-ro  luks-open-ro device mapname  This is the same as luks-open'' except that a read-only mapping is created. This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately. This command depends on the feature "luks". See also feature-available''. ## lvcreate  lvcreate logvol volgroup mbytes  This creates an LVM logical volume called "logvol" on the volume group "volgroup", with "size" megabytes. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## lvcreate-free  lvcreate-free logvol volgroup percent  Create an LVM logical volume called /dev/volgroup/logvol, using approximately "percent" % of the free space remaining in the volume group. Most usefully, when "percent" is 100 this will create the largest possible LV. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## lvm-canonical-lv-name  lvm-canonical-lv-name lvname  This converts alternative naming schemes for LVs that you might find to the canonical name. For example, /dev/mapper/VG-LV is converted to /dev/VG/LV. This command returns an error if the "lvname" parameter does not refer to a logical volume. See also is-lv'', canonical-device-name''. ## lvm-clear-filter  lvm-clear-filter  This undoes the effect of lvm-set-filter''. LVM will be able to see every block device. This command also clears the LVM cache and performs a volume group scan. ## lvm-remove-all  lvm-remove-all  This command removes all LVM logical volumes, volume groups and physical volumes. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## lvm-set-filter  lvm-set-filter 'devices ...'  This sets the LVM device filter so that LVM will only be able to see'' the block devices in the list "devices", and will ignore all other attached block devices. Where disk image(s) contain duplicate PVs or VGs, this command is useful to get LVM to ignore the duplicates, otherwise LVM can get confused. Note also there are two types of duplication possible: either cloned PVs/VGs which have identical UUIDs; or VGs that are not cloned but just happen to have the same name. In normal operation you cannot create this situation, but you can do it outside LVM, eg. by cloning disk images or by bit twiddling inside the LVM metadata. This command also clears the LVM cache and performs a volume group scan. You can filter whole block devices or individual partitions. You cannot use this if any VG is currently in use (eg. contains a mounted filesystem), even if you are not filtering out that VG. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## lvremove  lvremove device  Remove an LVM logical volume "device", where "device" is the path to the LV, such as /dev/VG/LV. You can also remove all LVs in a volume group by specifying the VG name, /dev/VG. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## lvrename  lvrename logvol newlogvol  Rename a logical volume "logvol" with the new name "newlogvol". ## lvresize  lvresize device mbytes  This resizes (expands or shrinks) an existing LVM logical volume to "mbytes". When reducing, data in the reduced part is lost. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## lvresize-free  lvresize-free lv percent  This expands an existing logical volume "lv" so that it fills "pc"% of the remaining free space in the volume group. Commonly you would call this with pc = 100 which expands the logical volume as much as possible, using all remaining free space in the volume group. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## lvs  lvs  List all the logical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the lvs(8) command. This returns a list of the logical volume device names (eg. /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00). See also lvs-full'', list-filesystems''. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## lvs-full  lvs-full  List all the logical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the lvs(8) command. The full'' version includes all fields. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## lvuuid  lvuuid device  This command returns the UUID of the LVM LV "device". ## lxattrlist  lxattrlist path 'names ...'  This call allows you to get the extended attributes of multiple files, where all files are in the directory "path". "names" is the list of files from this directory. On return you get a flat list of xattr structs which must be interpreted sequentially. The first xattr struct always has a zero-length "attrname". "attrval" in this struct is zero-length to indicate there was an error doing "lgetxattr" for this file, or is a C string which is a decimal number (the number of following attributes for this file, which could be "0"). Then after the first xattr struct are the zero or more attributes for the first named file. This repeats for the second and subsequent files. This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. See also lstatlist'' for a similarly efficient call for getting standard stats. This command depends on the feature "linuxxattrs". See also feature-available''. ## max-disks  max-disks  Return the maximum number of disks that may be added to a handle (eg. by add-drive-opts'' and similar calls). This function was added in libguestfs 1.19.7. In previous versions of libguestfs the limit was 25. See MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DISKS'' in guestfs(3) for additional information on this topic. ## md-create  md-create name 'devices ...' [missingbitmap:N] [nrdevices:N] [spare:N] [chunk:N] [level:..]  Create a Linux md (RAID) device named "name" on the devices in the list "devices". The optional parameters are: "missingbitmap" A bitmap of missing devices. If a bit is set it means that a missing device is added to the array. The least significant bit corresponds to the first device in the array. As examples: If "devices = ["/dev/sda"]" and "missingbitmap = 0x1" then the resulting array would be "[<missing>, "/dev/sda"]". If "devices = ["/dev/sda"]" and "missingbitmap = 0x2" then the resulting array would be "["/dev/sda", <missing>]". This defaults to 0 (no missing devices). The length of "devices" + the number of bits set in "missingbitmap" must equal "nrdevices" + "spare". "nrdevices" The number of active RAID devices. If not set, this defaults to the length of "devices" plus the number of bits set in "missingbitmap". "spare" The number of spare devices. If not set, this defaults to 0. "chunk" The chunk size in bytes. "level" The RAID level, which can be one of: linear, raid0, 0, stripe, raid1, 1, mirror, raid4, 4, raid5, 5, raid6, 6, raid10, 10. Some of these are synonymous, and more levels may be added in future. If not set, this defaults to "raid1". This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. This command depends on the feature "mdadm". See also feature-available''. ## md-detail  md-detail md  This command exposes the output of 'mdadm -DY <md>'. The following fields are usually present in the returned hash. Other fields may also be present. "level" The raid level of the MD device. "devices" The number of underlying devices in the MD device. "metadata" The metadata version used. "uuid" The UUID of the MD device. "name" The name of the MD device. This command depends on the feature "mdadm". See also feature-available''. ## md-stat  md-stat md  This call returns a list of the underlying devices which make up the single software RAID array device "md". To get a list of software RAID devices, call list-md-devices''. Each structure returned corresponds to one device along with additional status information: "mdstat_device" The name of the underlying device. "mdstat_index" The index of this device within the array. "mdstat_flags" Flags associated with this device. This is a string containing (in no specific order) zero or more of the following flags: "W" write-mostly "F" device is faulty "S" device is a RAID spare "R" replacement This command depends on the feature "mdadm". See also feature-available''. ## md-stop  md-stop md  This command deactivates the MD array named "md". The device is stopped, but it is not destroyed or zeroed. This command depends on the feature "mdadm". See also feature-available''. ## mkdir  mkdir path  Create a directory named "path". ## mkdir-mode  mkdir-mode path mode  This command creates a directory, setting the initial permissions of the directory to "mode". For common Linux filesystems, the actual mode which is set will be "mode & ~umask & 01777". Non-native-Linux filesystems may interpret the mode in other ways. See also mkdir'', umask'' ## mkdir-p  mkdir-p path  Create a directory named "path", creating any parent directories as necessary. This is like the "mkdir -p" shell command. ## mkdtemp  mkdtemp tmpl  This command creates a temporary directory. The "tmpl" parameter should be a full pathname for the temporary directory name with the final six characters being XXXXXX''. For example: /tmp/myprogXXXXXX'' or /Temp/myprogXXXXXX'', the second one being suitable for Windows filesystems. The name of the temporary directory that was created is returned. The temporary directory is created with mode 0700 and is owned by root. The caller is responsible for deleting the temporary directory and its contents after use. See also: mkdtemp(3) ## mke2fs  mke2fs device [blockscount:N] [blocksize:N] [fragsize:N] [blockspergroup:N] [numberofgroups:N] [bytesperinode:N] [inodesize:N] [journalsize:N] [numberofinodes:N] [stridesize:N] [stripewidth:N] [maxonlineresize:N] [reservedblockspercentage:N] [mmpupdateinterval:N] [journaldevice:..] [label:..] [lastmounteddir:..] [creatoros:..] [fstype:..] [usagetype:..] [uuid:..] [forcecreate:true|false] [writesbandgrouponly:true|false] [lazyitableinit:true|false] [lazyjournalinit:true|false] [testfs:true|false] [discard:true|false] [quotatype:true|false] [extent:true|false] [filetype:true|false] [flexbg:true|false] [hasjournal:true|false] [journaldev:true|false] [largefile:true|false] [quota:true|false] [resizeinode:true|false] [sparsesuper:true|false] [uninitbg:true|false]  "mke2fs" is used to create an ext2, ext3, or ext4 filesystem on "device". The optional "blockscount" is the size of the filesystem in blocks. If omitted it defaults to the size of "device". Note if the filesystem is too small to contain a journal, "mke2fs" will silently create an ext2 filesystem instead. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## mke2fs-J  mke2fs-J fstype blocksize device journal  This creates an ext2/3/4 filesystem on "device" with an external journal on "journal". It is equivalent to the command:  mke2fs -t fstype -b blocksize -J device=<journal> <device>  See also mke2journal''. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the mke2fs'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## mke2fs-JL  mke2fs-JL fstype blocksize device label  This creates an ext2/3/4 filesystem on "device" with an external journal on the journal labeled "label". See also mke2journal-L''. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the mke2fs'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## mke2fs-JU  mke2fs-JU fstype blocksize device uuid  This creates an ext2/3/4 filesystem on "device" with an external journal on the journal with UUID "uuid". See also mke2journal-U''. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the mke2fs'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. This command depends on the feature "linuxfsuuid". See also feature-available''. ## mke2journal  mke2journal blocksize device  This creates an ext2 external journal on "device". It is equivalent to the command:  mke2fs -O journal_dev -b blocksize device  This function is deprecated. In new code, use the mke2fs'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## mke2journal-L  mke2journal-L blocksize label device  This creates an ext2 external journal on "device" with label "label". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the mke2fs'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## mke2journal-U  mke2journal-U blocksize uuid device  This creates an ext2 external journal on "device" with UUID "uuid". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the mke2fs'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. This command depends on the feature "linuxfsuuid". See also feature-available''. ## mkfifo  mkfifo mode path  This call creates a FIFO (named pipe) called "path" with mode "mode". It is just a convenient wrapper around mknod''. Unlike with mknod'', "mode" must contain only permissions bits. The mode actually set is affected by the umask. This command depends on the feature "mknod". See also feature-available''. ## mkfs ## mkfs-opts  mkfs fstype device [blocksize:N] [features:..] [inode:N] [sectorsize:N] [label:..]  This function creates a filesystem on "device". The filesystem type is "fstype", for example "ext3". The optional arguments are: "blocksize" The filesystem block size. Supported block sizes depend on the filesystem type, but typically they are 1024, 2048 or 4096 for Linux ext2/3 filesystems. For VFAT and NTFS the "blocksize" parameter is treated as the requested cluster size. For UFS block sizes, please see mkfs.ufs(8). "features" This passes the -O parameter to the external mkfs program. For certain filesystem types, this allows extra filesystem features to be selected. See mke2fs(8) and mkfs.ufs(8) for more details. You cannot use this optional parameter with the "gfs" or "gfs2" filesystem type. "inode" This passes the -I parameter to the external mke2fs(8) program which sets the inode size (only for ext2/3/4 filesystems at present). "sectorsize" This passes the -S parameter to external mkfs.ufs(8) program, which sets sector size for ufs filesystem. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## mkfs-b  mkfs-b fstype blocksize device  This call is similar to mkfs'', but it allows you to control the block size of the resulting filesystem. Supported block sizes depend on the filesystem type, but typically they are 1024, 2048 or 4096 only. For VFAT and NTFS the "blocksize" parameter is treated as the requested cluster size. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the mkfs'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## mkfs-btrfs  mkfs-btrfs 'devices ...' [allocstart:N] [bytecount:N] [datatype:..] [leafsize:N] [label:..] [metadata:..] [nodesize:N] [sectorsize:N]  Create a btrfs filesystem, allowing all configurables to be set. For more information on the optional arguments, see mkfs.btrfs(8). Since btrfs filesystems can span multiple devices, this takes a non-empty list of devices. To create general filesystems, use mkfs''. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. This command depends on the feature "btrfs". See also feature-available''. ## mklost-and-found  mklost-and-found mountpoint  Make the "lost+found" directory, normally in the root directory of an ext2/3/4 filesystem. "mountpoint" is the directory under which we try to create the "lost+found" directory. ## mkmountpoint  mkmountpoint exemptpath  mkmountpoint'' and rmmountpoint'' are specialized calls that can be used to create extra mountpoints before mounting the first filesystem. These calls are only necessary in some very limited circumstances, mainly the case where you want to mount a mix of unrelated and/or read-only filesystems together. For example, live CDs often contain a Russian doll'' nest of filesystems, an ISO outer layer, with a squashfs image inside, with an ext2/3 image inside that. You can unpack this as follows in guestfish:  add-ro Fedora-11-i686-Live.iso run mkmountpoint /cd mkmountpoint /sqsh mkmountpoint /ext3fs mount /dev/sda /cd mount-loop /cd/LiveOS/squashfs.img /sqsh mount-loop /sqsh/LiveOS/ext3fs.img /ext3fs  The inner filesystem is now unpacked under the /ext3fs mountpoint. mkmountpoint'' is not compatible with umount-all''. You may get unexpected errors if you try to mix these calls. It is safest to manually unmount filesystems and remove mountpoints after use. umount-all'' unmounts filesystems by sorting the paths longest first, so for this to work for manual mountpoints, you must ensure that the innermost mountpoints have the longest pathnames, as in the example code above. For more details see https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=599503 Autosync [see set-autosync'', this is set by default on handles] can cause umount-all'' to be called when the handle is closed which can also trigger these issues. ## mknod  mknod mode devmajor devminor path  This call creates block or character special devices, or named pipes (FIFOs). The "mode" parameter should be the mode, using the standard constants. "devmajor" and "devminor" are the device major and minor numbers, only used when creating block and character special devices. Note that, just like mknod(2), the mode must be bitwise OR'd with S_IFBLK, S_IFCHR, S_IFIFO or S_IFSOCK (otherwise this call just creates a regular file). These constants are available in the standard Linux header files, or you can use mknod-b'', mknod-c'' or mkfifo'' which are wrappers around this command which bitwise OR in the appropriate constant for you. The mode actually set is affected by the umask. This command depends on the feature "mknod". See also feature-available''. ## mknod-b  mknod-b mode devmajor devminor path  This call creates a block device node called "path" with mode "mode" and device major/minor "devmajor" and "devminor". It is just a convenient wrapper around mknod''. Unlike with mknod'', "mode" must contain only permissions bits. The mode actually set is affected by the umask. This command depends on the feature "mknod". See also feature-available''. ## mknod-c  mknod-c mode devmajor devminor path  This call creates a char device node called "path" with mode "mode" and device major/minor "devmajor" and "devminor". It is just a convenient wrapper around mknod''. Unlike with mknod'', "mode" must contain only permissions bits. The mode actually set is affected by the umask. This command depends on the feature "mknod". See also feature-available''. ## mkswap ## mkswap-opts  mkswap device [label:..] [uuid:..]  Create a Linux swap partition on "device". The option arguments "label" and "uuid" allow you to set the label and/or UUID of the new swap partition. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## mkswap-L  mkswap-L label device  Create a swap partition on "device" with label "label". Note that you cannot attach a swap label to a block device (eg. /dev/sda), just to a partition. This appears to be a limitation of the kernel or swap tools. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the mkswap'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## mkswap-U  mkswap-U uuid device  Create a swap partition on "device" with UUID "uuid". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the mkswap'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. This command depends on the feature "linuxfsuuid". See also feature-available''. ## mkswap-file  mkswap-file path  Create a swap file. This command just writes a swap file signature to an existing file. To create the file itself, use something like fallocate''. ## mktemp  mktemp tmpl [suffix:..]  This command creates a temporary file. The "tmpl" parameter should be a full pathname for the temporary directory name with the final six characters being XXXXXX''. For example: /tmp/myprogXXXXXX'' or /Temp/myprogXXXXXX'', the second one being suitable for Windows filesystems. The name of the temporary file that was created is returned. The temporary file is created with mode 0600 and is owned by root. The caller is responsible for deleting the temporary file after use. If the optional "suffix" parameter is given, then the suffix (eg. ".txt") is appended to the temporary name. See also: mkdtemp''. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## modprobe  modprobe modulename  This loads a kernel module in the appliance. This command depends on the feature "linuxmodules". See also feature-available''. ## mount  mount mountable mountpoint  Mount a guest disk at a position in the filesystem. Block devices are named /dev/sda, /dev/sdb and so on, as they were added to the guest. If those block devices contain partitions, they will have the usual names (eg. /dev/sda1). Also LVM /dev/VG/LV-style names can be used, or 'mountable' strings returned by list-filesystems'' or inspect-get-mountpoints''. The rules are the same as for mount(2): A filesystem must first be mounted on / before others can be mounted. Other filesystems can only be mounted on directories which already exist. The mounted filesystem is writable, if we have sufficient permissions on the underlying device. Before libguestfs 1.13.16, this call implicitly added the options "sync" and "noatime". The "sync" option greatly slowed writes and caused many problems for users. If your program might need to work with older versions of libguestfs, use mount-options'' instead (using an empty string for the first parameter if you don't want any options). ## mount-9p  mount-9p mounttag mountpoint [options:..]  Mount the virtio-9p filesystem with the tag "mounttag" on the directory "mountpoint". If required, "trans=virtio" will be automatically added to the options. Any other options required can be passed in the optional "options" parameter. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## mount-local  mount-local localmountpoint [readonly:true|false] [options:..] [cachetimeout:N] [debugcalls:true|false]  This call exports the libguestfs-accessible filesystem to a local mountpoint (directory) called "localmountpoint". Ordinary reads and writes to files and directories under "localmountpoint" are redirected through libguestfs. If the optional "readonly" flag is set to true, then writes to the filesystem return error "EROFS". "options" is a comma-separated list of mount options. See guestmount(1) for some useful options. "cachetimeout" sets the timeout (in seconds) for cached directory entries. The default is 60 seconds. See guestmount(1) for further information. If "debugcalls" is set to true, then additional debugging information is generated for every FUSE call. When mount-local'' returns, the filesystem is ready, but is not processing requests (access to it will block). You have to call mount-local-run'' to run the main loop. See MOUNT LOCAL'' in guestfs(3) for full documentation. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## mount-local-run  mount-local-run  Run the main loop which translates kernel calls to libguestfs calls. This should only be called after mount-local'' returns successfully. The call will not return until the filesystem is unmounted. Note you must not make concurrent libguestfs calls on the same handle from another thread. You may call this from a different thread than the one which called mount-local'', subject to the usual rules for threads and libguestfs (see MULTIPLE HANDLES AND MULTIPLE THREADS'' in guestfs(3)). See MOUNT LOCAL'' in guestfs(3) for full documentation. ## mount-loop  mount-loop file mountpoint  This command lets you mount file (a filesystem image in a file) on a mount point. It is entirely equivalent to the command "mount -o loop file mountpoint". ## mount-options  mount-options options mountable mountpoint  This is the same as the mount'' command, but it allows you to set the mount options as for the mount(8) -o flag. If the "options" parameter is an empty string, then no options are passed (all options default to whatever the filesystem uses). ## mount-ro  mount-ro mountable mountpoint  This is the same as the mount'' command, but it mounts the filesystem with the read-only (-o ro) flag. ## mount-vfs  mount-vfs options vfstype mountable mountpoint  This is the same as the mount'' command, but it allows you to set both the mount options and the vfstype as for the mount(8) -o and -t flags. ## mountpoints  mountpoints  This call is similar to mounts''. That call returns a list of devices. This one returns a hash table (map) of device name to directory where the device is mounted. ## mounts  mounts  This returns the list of currently mounted filesystems. It returns the list of devices (eg. /dev/sda1, /dev/VG/LV). Some internal mounts are not shown. See also: mountpoints'' ## mv  mv src dest  This moves a file from "src" to "dest" where "dest" is either a destination filename or destination directory. See also: rename''. ## nr-devices  nr-devices  This returns the number of whole block devices that were added. This is the same as the number of devices that would be returned if you called list-devices''. To find out the maximum number of devices that could be added, call max-disks''. ## ntfs-3g-probe  ntfs-3g-probe true|false device  This command runs the ntfs-3g.probe(8) command which probes an NTFS "device" for mountability. (Not all NTFS volumes can be mounted read-write, and some cannot be mounted at all). "rw" is a boolean flag. Set it to true if you want to test if the volume can be mounted read-write. Set it to false if you want to test if the volume can be mounted read-only. The return value is an integer which 0 if the operation would succeed, or some non-zero value documented in the ntfs-3g.probe(8) manual page. This command depends on the feature "ntfs3g". See also feature-available''. ## ntfsclone-in  ntfsclone-in (backupfile|-) device  Restore the "backupfile" (from a previous call to ntfsclone-out'') to "device", overwriting any existing contents of this device. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This command depends on the feature "ntfs3g". See also feature-available''. ## ntfsclone-out  ntfsclone-out device (backupfile|-) [metadataonly:true|false] [rescue:true|false] [ignorefscheck:true|false] [preservetimestamps:true|false] [force:true|false]  Stream the NTFS filesystem "device" to the local file "backupfile". The format used for the backup file is a special format used by the ntfsclone(8) tool. If the optional "metadataonly" flag is true, then only the metadata is saved, losing all the user data (this is useful for diagnosing some filesystem problems). The optional "rescue", "ignorefscheck", "preservetimestamps" and "force" flags have precise meanings detailed in the ntfsclone(8) man page. Use ntfsclone-in'' to restore the file back to a libguestfs device. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. This command depends on the feature "ntfs3g". See also feature-available''. ## ntfsfix  ntfsfix device [clearbadsectors:true|false]  This command repairs some fundamental NTFS inconsistencies, resets the NTFS journal file, and schedules an NTFS consistency check for the first boot into Windows. This is not an equivalent of Windows "chkdsk". It does not scan the filesystem for inconsistencies. The optional "clearbadsectors" flag clears the list of bad sectors. This is useful after cloning a disk with bad sectors to a new disk. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. This command depends on the feature "ntfs3g". See also feature-available''. ## ntfsresize ## ntfsresize-opts  ntfsresize device [size:N] [force:true|false]  This command resizes an NTFS filesystem, expanding or shrinking it to the size of the underlying device. The optional parameters are: "size" The new size (in bytes) of the filesystem. If omitted, the filesystem is resized to fit the container (eg. partition). "force" If this option is true, then force the resize of the filesystem even if the filesystem is marked as requiring a consistency check. After the resize operation, the filesystem is always marked as requiring a consistency check (for safety). You have to boot into Windows to perform this check and clear this condition. If you don't set the "force" option then it is not possible to call ntfsresize'' multiple times on a single filesystem without booting into Windows between each resize. See also ntfsresize(8). This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. This command depends on the feature "ntfsprogs". See also feature-available''. ## ntfsresize-size  ntfsresize-size device size  This command is the same as ntfsresize'' except that it allows you to specify the new size (in bytes) explicitly. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the ntfsresize'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. This command depends on the feature "ntfsprogs". See also feature-available''. ## parse-environment  parse-environment  Parse the program's environment and set flags in the handle accordingly. For example if "LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1" then the 'verbose' flag is set in the handle. Most programs do not need to call this. It is done implicitly when you call create''. See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES'' in guestfs(3) for a list of environment variables that can affect libguestfs handles. See also guestfs_create_flags'' in guestfs(3), and parse-environment-list''. ## parse-environment-list  parse-environment-list 'environment ...'  Parse the list of strings in the argument "environment" and set flags in the handle accordingly. For example if "LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1" is a string in the list, then the 'verbose' flag is set in the handle. This is the same as parse-environment'' except that it parses an explicit list of strings instead of the program's environment. ## part-add  part-add device prlogex startsect endsect  This command adds a partition to "device". If there is no partition table on the device, call part-init'' first. The "prlogex" parameter is the type of partition. Normally you should pass "p" or "primary" here, but MBR partition tables also support "l" (or "logical") and "e" (or "extended") partition types. "startsect" and "endsect" are the start and end of the partition in sectors. "endsect" may be negative, which means it counts backwards from the end of the disk ("-1" is the last sector). Creating a partition which covers the whole disk is not so easy. Use part-disk'' to do that. ## part-del  part-del device partnum  This command deletes the partition numbered "partnum" on "device". Note that in the case of MBR partitioning, deleting an extended partition also deletes any logical partitions it contains. ## part-disk  part-disk device parttype  This command is simply a combination of part-init'' followed by part-add'' to create a single primary partition covering the whole disk. "parttype" is the partition table type, usually "mbr" or "gpt", but other possible values are described in part-init''. ## part-get-bootable  part-get-bootable device partnum  This command returns true if the partition "partnum" on "device" has the bootable flag set. See also part-set-bootable''. ## part-get-gpt-guid  part-get-gpt-guid device partnum  Return the GUID of numbered GPT partition "partnum". This command depends on the feature "gdisk". See also feature-available''. ## part-get-gpt-type  part-get-gpt-type device partnum  Return the type GUID of numbered GPT partition "partnum". For MBR partitions, return an appropriate GUID corresponding to the MBR type. Behaviour is undefined for other partition types. This command depends on the feature "gdisk". See also feature-available''. ## part-get-mbr-id  part-get-mbr-id device partnum  Returns the MBR type byte (also known as the ID byte) from the numbered partition "partnum". Note that only MBR (old DOS-style) partitions have type bytes. You will get undefined results for other partition table types (see part-get-parttype''). ## part-get-mbr-part-type  part-get-mbr-part-type device partnum  This returns the partition type of an MBR partition numbered "partnum" on device "device". It returns "primary", "logical", or "extended". ## part-get-name  part-get-name device partnum  This gets the partition name on partition numbered "partnum" on device "device". Note that partitions are numbered from 1. The partition name can only be read on certain types of partition table. This works on "gpt" but not on "mbr" partitions. ## part-get-parttype  part-get-parttype device  This command examines the partition table on "device" and returns the partition table type (format) being used. Common return values include: "msdos" (a DOS/Windows style MBR partition table), "gpt" (a GPT/EFI-style partition table). Other values are possible, although unusual. See part-init'' for a full list. ## part-init  part-init device parttype  This creates an empty partition table on "device" of one of the partition types listed below. Usually "parttype" should be either "msdos" or "gpt" (for large disks). Initially there are no partitions. Following this, you should call part-add'' for each partition required. Possible values for "parttype" are: efi gpt Intel EFI / GPT partition table. This is recommended for >= 2 TB partitions that will be accessed from Linux and Intel-based Mac OS X. It also has limited backwards compatibility with the "mbr" format. mbr msdos The standard PC Master Boot Record'' (MBR) format used by MS-DOS and Windows. This partition type will only work for device sizes up to 2 TB. For large disks we recommend using "gpt". Other partition table types that may work but are not supported include: aix AIX disk labels. amiga rdb Amiga Rigid Disk Block'' format. bsd BSD disk labels. dasd DASD, used on IBM mainframes. dvh MIPS/SGI volumes. mac Old Mac partition format. Modern Macs use "gpt". pc98 NEC PC-98 format, common in Japan apparently. sun Sun disk labels. ## part-list  part-list device  This command parses the partition table on "device" and returns the list of partitions found. The fields in the returned structure are: part_num Partition number, counting from 1. part_start Start of the partition in bytes. To get sectors you have to divide by the device's sector size, see blockdev-getss''. part_end End of the partition in bytes. part_size Size of the partition in bytes. ## part-set-bootable  part-set-bootable device partnum true|false  This sets the bootable flag on partition numbered "partnum" on device "device". Note that partitions are numbered from 1. The bootable flag is used by some operating systems (notably Windows) to determine which partition to boot from. It is by no means universally recognized. ## part-set-gpt-guid  part-set-gpt-guid device partnum guid  Set the GUID of numbered GPT partition "partnum" to "guid". Return an error if the partition table of "device" isn't GPT, or if "guid" is not a valid GUID. This command depends on the feature "gdisk". See also feature-available''. ## part-set-gpt-type  part-set-gpt-type device partnum guid  Set the type GUID of numbered GPT partition "partnum" to "guid". Return an error if the partition table of "device" isn't GPT, or if "guid" is not a valid GUID. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table#Partition_type_GUIDs for a useful list of type GUIDs. This command depends on the feature "gdisk". See also feature-available''. ## part-set-mbr-id  part-set-mbr-id device partnum idbyte  Sets the MBR type byte (also known as the ID byte) of the numbered partition "partnum" to "idbyte". Note that the type bytes quoted in most documentation are in fact hexadecimal numbers, but usually documented without any leading 0x'' which might be confusing. Note that only MBR (old DOS-style) partitions have type bytes. You will get undefined results for other partition table types (see part-get-parttype''). ## part-set-name  part-set-name device partnum name  This sets the partition name on partition numbered "partnum" on device "device". Note that partitions are numbered from 1. The partition name can only be set on certain types of partition table. This works on "gpt" but not on "mbr" partitions. ## part-to-dev  part-to-dev partition  This function takes a partition name (eg. /dev/sdb1'') and removes the partition number, returning the device name (eg. /dev/sdb''). The named partition must exist, for example as a string returned from list-partitions''. See also part-to-partnum'', device-index''. ## part-to-partnum  part-to-partnum partition  This function takes a partition name (eg. /dev/sdb1'') and returns the partition number (eg. 1). The named partition must exist, for example as a string returned from list-partitions''. See also part-to-dev''. ## ping-daemon  ping-daemon  This is a test probe into the guestfs daemon running inside the libguestfs appliance. Calling this function checks that the daemon responds to the ping message, without affecting the daemon or attached block device(s) in any other way. ## pread  pread path count offset  This command lets you read part of a file. It reads "count" bytes of the file, starting at "offset", from file "path". This may read fewer bytes than requested. For further details see the pread(2) system call. See also pwrite'', pread-device''. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). ## pread-device  pread-device device count offset  This command lets you read part of a block device. It reads "count" bytes of "device", starting at "offset". This may read fewer bytes than requested. For further details see the pread(2) system call. See also pread''. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). ## pvchange-uuid  pvchange-uuid device  Generate a new random UUID for the physical volume "device". This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## pvchange-uuid-all  pvchange-uuid-all  Generate new random UUIDs for all physical volumes. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## pvcreate  pvcreate device  This creates an LVM physical volume on the named "device", where "device" should usually be a partition name such as /dev/sda1. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## pvremove  pvremove device  This wipes a physical volume "device" so that LVM will no longer recognise it. The implementation uses the "pvremove" command which refuses to wipe physical volumes that contain any volume groups, so you have to remove those first. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## pvresize  pvresize device  This resizes (expands or shrinks) an existing LVM physical volume to match the new size of the underlying device. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## pvresize-size  pvresize-size device size  This command is the same as pvresize'' except that it allows you to specify the new size (in bytes) explicitly. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## pvs  pvs  List all the physical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the pvs(8) command. This returns a list of just the device names that contain PVs (eg. /dev/sda2). See also pvs-full''. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## pvs-full  pvs-full  List all the physical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the pvs(8) command. The full'' version includes all fields. This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''. ## pvuuid  pvuuid device  This command returns the UUID of the LVM PV "device". ## pwrite  pwrite path content offset  This command writes to part of a file. It writes the data buffer "content" to the file "path" starting at offset "offset". This command implements the pwrite(2) system call, and like that system call it may not write the full data requested. The return value is the number of bytes that were actually written to the file. This could even be 0, although short writes are unlikely for regular files in ordinary circumstances. See also pread'', pwrite-device''. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). ## pwrite-device  pwrite-device device content offset  This command writes to part of a device. It writes the data buffer "content" to "device" starting at offset "offset". This command implements the pwrite(2) system call, and like that system call it may not write the full data requested (although short writes to disk devices and partitions are probably impossible with standard Linux kernels). See also pwrite''. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). ## read-file  read-file path  This calls returns the contents of the file "path" as a buffer. Unlike cat'', this function can correctly handle files that contain embedded ASCII NUL characters. ## read-lines  read-lines path  Return the contents of the file named "path". The file contents are returned as a list of lines. Trailing "LF" and "CRLF" character sequences are not returned. Note that this function cannot correctly handle binary files (specifically, files containing "\0" character which is treated as end of string). For those you need to use the read-file'' function and split the buffer into lines yourself. ## readdir  readdir dir  This returns the list of directory entries in directory "dir". All entries in the directory are returned, including "." and "..". The entries are not sorted, but returned in the same order as the underlying filesystem. Also this call returns basic file type information about each file. The "ftyp" field will contain one of the following characters: 'b' Block special 'c' Char special 'd' Directory 'f' FIFO (named pipe) 'l' Symbolic link 'r' Regular file 's' Socket 'u' Unknown file type '?' The readdir(3) call returned a "d_type" field with an unexpected value This function is primarily intended for use by programs. To get a simple list of names, use ls''. To get a printable directory for human consumption, use ll''. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3). ## readlink  readlink path  This command reads the target of a symbolic link. ## readlinklist  readlinklist path 'names ...'  This call allows you to do a "readlink" operation on multiple files, where all files are in the directory "path". "names" is the list of files from this directory. On return you get a list of strings, with a one-to-one correspondence to the "names" list. Each string is the value of the symbolic link. If the readlink(2) operation fails on any name, then the corresponding result string is the empty string "". However the whole operation is completed even if there were readlink(2) errors, and so you can call this function with names where you don't know if they are symbolic links already (albeit slightly less efficient). This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. ## realpath  realpath path  Return the canonicalized absolute pathname of "path". The returned path has no ".", ".." or symbolic link path elements. ## remount  remount mountpoint [rw:true|false]  This call allows you to change the "rw" (readonly/read-write) flag on an already mounted filesystem at "mountpoint", converting a readonly filesystem to be read-write, or vice-versa. Note that at the moment you must supply the optional'' "rw" parameter. In future we may allow other flags to be adjusted. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## remove-drive  remove-drive label  This function is conceptually the opposite of add-drive-opts''. It removes the drive that was previously added with label "label". Note that in order to remove drives, you have to add them with labels (see the optional "label" argument to add-drive-opts''). If you didn't use a label, then they cannot be removed. You can call this function before or after launching the handle. If called after launch, if the backend supports it, we try to hot unplug the drive: see HOTPLUGGING'' in guestfs(3). The disk must not be in use (eg. mounted) when you do this. We try to detect if the disk is in use and stop you from doing this. ## removexattr  removexattr xattr path  This call removes the extended attribute named "xattr" of the file "path". See also: lremovexattr'', attr(5). This command depends on the feature "linuxxattrs". See also feature-available''. ## rename  rename oldpath newpath  Rename a file to a new place on the same filesystem. This is the same as the Linux rename(2) system call. In most cases you are better to use mv'' instead. ## resize2fs  resize2fs device  This resizes an ext2, ext3 or ext4 filesystem to match the size of the underlying device. See also RESIZE2FS ERRORS'' in guestfs(3). ## resize2fs-M  resize2fs-M device  This command is the same as resize2fs'', but the filesystem is resized to its minimum size. This works like the -M option to the "resize2fs" command. To get the resulting size of the filesystem you should call tune2fs-l'' and read the "Block size" and "Block count" values. These two numbers, multiplied together, give the resulting size of the minimal filesystem in bytes. See also RESIZE2FS ERRORS'' in guestfs(3). ## resize2fs-size  resize2fs-size device size  This command is the same as resize2fs'' except that it allows you to specify the new size (in bytes) explicitly. See also RESIZE2FS ERRORS'' in guestfs(3). ## rm  rm path  Remove the single file "path". ## rm-f  rm-f path  Remove the file "path". If the file doesn't exist, that error is ignored. (Other errors, eg. I/O errors or bad paths, are not ignored) This call cannot remove directories. Use rmdir'' to remove an empty directory, or rm-rf'' to remove directories recursively. ## rm-rf  rm-rf path  Remove the file or directory "path", recursively removing the contents if its a directory. This is like the "rm -rf" shell command. ## rmdir  rmdir path  Remove the single directory "path". ## rmmountpoint  rmmountpoint exemptpath  This calls removes a mountpoint that was previously created with mkmountpoint''. See mkmountpoint'' for full details. ## rsync  rsync src dest [archive:true|false] [deletedest:true|false]  This call may be used to copy or synchronize two directories under the same libguestfs handle. This uses the rsync(1) program which uses a fast algorithm that avoids copying files unnecessarily. "src" and "dest" are the source and destination directories. Files are copied from "src" to "dest". The optional arguments are: "archive" Turns on archive mode. This is the same as passing the --archive flag to "rsync". "deletedest" Delete files at the destination that do not exist at the source. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. This command depends on the feature "rsync". See also feature-available''. ## rsync-in  rsync-in remote dest [archive:true|false] [deletedest:true|false]  This call may be used to copy or synchronize the filesystem on the host or on a remote computer with the filesystem within libguestfs. This uses the rsync(1) program which uses a fast algorithm that avoids copying files unnecessarily. This call only works if the network is enabled. See set-network'' or the --network option to various tools like guestfish(1). Files are copied from the remote server and directory specified by "remote" to the destination directory "dest". The format of the remote server string is defined by rsync(1). Note that there is no way to supply a password or passphrase so the target must be set up not to require one. The optional arguments are the same as those of rsync''. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. This command depends on the feature "rsync". See also feature-available''. ## rsync-out  rsync-out src remote [archive:true|false] [deletedest:true|false]  This call may be used to copy or synchronize the filesystem within libguestfs with a filesystem on the host or on a remote computer. This uses the rsync(1) program which uses a fast algorithm that avoids copying files unnecessarily. This call only works if the network is enabled. See set-network'' or the --network option to various tools like guestfish(1). Files are copied from the source directory "src" to the remote server and directory specified by "remote". The format of the remote server string is defined by rsync(1). Note that there is no way to supply a password or passphrase so the target must be set up not to require one. The optional arguments are the same as those of rsync''. Globbing does not happen on the "src" parameter. In programs which use the API directly you have to expand wildcards yourself (see glob-expand''). In guestfish you can use the "glob" command (see glob''), for example:  ><fs> glob rsync-out /* rsync://remote/  This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. This command depends on the feature "rsync". See also feature-available''. ## scrub-device  scrub-device device  This command writes patterns over "device" to make data retrieval more difficult. It is an interface to the scrub(1) program. See that manual page for more details. This command depends on the feature "scrub". See also feature-available''. ## scrub-file  scrub-file file  This command writes patterns over a file to make data retrieval more difficult. The file is removed after scrubbing. It is an interface to the scrub(1) program. See that manual page for more details. This command depends on the feature "scrub". See also feature-available''. ## scrub-freespace  scrub-freespace dir  This command creates the directory "dir" and then fills it with files until the filesystem is full, and scrubs the files as for scrub-file'', and deletes them. The intention is to scrub any free space on the partition containing "dir". It is an interface to the scrub(1) program. See that manual page for more details. This command depends on the feature "scrub". See also feature-available''. ## set-append ## append  set-append append  This function is used to add additional options to the libguestfs appliance kernel command line. The default is "NULL" unless overridden by setting "LIBGUESTFS_APPEND" environment variable. Setting "append" to "NULL" means no additional options are passed (libguestfs always adds a few of its own). ## set-attach-method ## attach-method  set-attach-method backend  Set the method that libguestfs uses to connect to the backend guestfsd daemon. See BACKEND'' in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the set-backend'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## set-autosync ## autosync  set-autosync true|false  If "autosync" is true, this enables autosync. Libguestfs will make a best effort attempt to make filesystems consistent and synchronized when the handle is closed (also if the program exits without closing handles). This is enabled by default (since libguestfs 1.5.24, previously it was disabled by default). ## set-backend ## backend  set-backend backend  Set the method that libguestfs uses to connect to the backend guestfsd daemon. This handle property was previously called the attach method''. See BACKEND'' in guestfs(3). ## set-backend-setting  set-backend-setting name val  Append "name=value" to the backend settings string list. However if a string already exists matching "name" or beginning with "name=", then that setting is replaced. See BACKEND'' in guestfs(3), BACKEND SETTINGS'' in guestfs(3). ## set-backend-settings  set-backend-settings 'settings ...'  Set a list of zero or more settings which are passed through to the current backend. Each setting is a string which is interpreted in a backend-specific way, or ignored if not understood by the backend. The default value is an empty list, unless the environment variable "LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND_SETTINGS" was set when the handle was created. This environment variable contains a colon-separated list of settings. This call replaces all backend settings. If you want to replace a single backend setting, see set-backend-setting''. If you want to clear a single backend setting, see clear-backend-setting''. See BACKEND'' in guestfs(3), BACKEND SETTINGS'' in guestfs(3). ## set-cachedir ## cachedir  set-cachedir cachedir  Set the directory used by the handle to store the appliance cache, when using a supermin appliance. The appliance is cached and shared between all handles which have the same effective user ID. The environment variables "LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR" and "TMPDIR" control the default value: If "LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR" is set, then that is the default. Else if "TMPDIR" is set, then that is the default. Else /var/tmp is the default. ## set-direct ## direct  set-direct true|false  If the direct appliance mode flag is enabled, then stdin and stdout are passed directly through to the appliance once it is launched. One consequence of this is that log messages aren't caught by the library and handled by set-log-message-callback'', but go straight to stdout. You probably don't want to use this unless you know what you are doing. The default is disabled. ## set-e2attrs  set-e2attrs file attrs [clear:true|false]  This sets or clears the file attributes "attrs" associated with the inode file. "attrs" is a string of characters representing file attributes. See get-e2attrs'' for a list of possible attributes. Not all attributes can be changed. If optional boolean "clear" is not present or false, then the "attrs" listed are set in the inode. If "clear" is true, then the "attrs" listed are cleared in the inode. In both cases, other attributes not present in the "attrs" string are left unchanged. These attributes are only present when the file is located on an ext2/3/4 filesystem. Using this call on other filesystem types will result in an error. This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''. ## set-e2generation  set-e2generation file generation  This sets the ext2 file generation of a file. See get-e2generation''. ## set-e2label  set-e2label device label  This sets the ext2/3/4 filesystem label of the filesystem on "device" to "label". Filesystem labels are limited to 16 characters. You can use either tune2fs-l'' or get-e2label'' to return the existing label on a filesystem. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the set-label'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## set-e2uuid  set-e2uuid device uuid  This sets the ext2/3/4 filesystem UUID of the filesystem on "device" to "uuid". The format of the UUID and alternatives such as "clear", "random" and "time" are described in the tune2fs(8) manpage. You can use vfs-uuid'' to return the existing UUID of a filesystem. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the set-uuid'' call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## set-hv ## hv  set-hv hv  Set the hypervisor binary that we will use. The hypervisor depends on the backend, but is usually the location of the qemu/KVM hypervisor. For the uml backend, it is the location of the "linux" or "vmlinux" binary. The default is chosen when the library was compiled by the configure script. You can also override this by setting the "LIBGUESTFS_HV" environment variable. Note that you should call this function as early as possible after creating the handle. This is because some pre-launch operations depend on testing qemu features (by running "qemu -help"). If the qemu binary changes, we don't retest features, and so you might see inconsistent results. Using the environment variable "LIBGUESTFS_HV" is safest of all since that picks the qemu binary at the same time as the handle is created. ## set-identifier ## identifier  set-identifier identifier  This is an informative string which the caller may optionally set in the handle. It is printed in various places, allowing the current handle to be identified in debugging output. One important place is when tracing is enabled. If the identifier string is not an empty string, then trace messages change from this:  libguestfs: trace: get_tmpdir libguestfs: trace: get_tmpdir = "/tmp"  to this:  libguestfs: trace: ID: get_tmpdir libguestfs: trace: ID: get_tmpdir = "/tmp"  where "ID" is the identifier string set by this call. The identifier must only contain alphanumeric ASCII characters, underscore and minus sign. The default is the empty string. See also set-program'', set-trace'', get-identifier''. ## set-label  set-label mountable label  Set the filesystem label on "mountable" to "label". Only some filesystem types support labels, and libguestfs supports setting labels on only a subset of these. ext2, ext3, ext4 Labels are limited to 16 bytes. NTFS Labels are limited to 128 unicode characters. XFS The label is limited to 12 bytes. The filesystem must not be mounted when trying to set the label. btrfs The label is limited to 255 bytes and some characters are not allowed. Setting the label on a btrfs subvolume will set the label on its parent filesystem. The filesystem must not be mounted when trying to set the label. fat The label is limited to 11 bytes. If there is no support for changing the label for the type of the specified filesystem, set_label will fail and set errno as ENOTSUP. To read the label on a filesystem, call vfs-label''. ## set-libvirt-requested-credential  set-libvirt-requested-credential index cred  After requesting the "index"'th credential from the user, call this function to pass the answer back to libvirt. See LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION'' in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. ## set-libvirt-supported-credentials  set-libvirt-supported-credentials 'creds ...'  Call this function before setting an event handler for "GUESTFS_EVENT_LIBVIRT_AUTH", to supply the list of credential types that the program knows how to process. The "creds" list must be a non-empty list of strings. Possible strings are: "username" "authname" "language" "cnonce" "passphrase" "echoprompt" "noechoprompt" "realm" "external" See libvirt documentation for the meaning of these credential types. See LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION'' in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. ## set-memsize ## memsize  set-memsize memsize  This sets the memory size in megabytes allocated to the hypervisor. This only has any effect if called before launch''. You can also change this by setting the environment variable "LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE" before the handle is created. For more information on the architecture of libguestfs, see guestfs(3). ## set-network ## network  set-network true|false  If "network" is true, then the network is enabled in the libguestfs appliance. The default is false. This affects whether commands are able to access the network (see RUNNING COMMANDS'' in guestfs(3)). You must call this before calling launch'', otherwise it has no effect. ## set-path ## path  set-path searchpath  Set the path that libguestfs searches for kernel and initrd.img. The default is "$libdir/guestfs" unless overridden by setting "LIBGUESTFS_PATH" environment variable.

Setting "path" to "NULL" restores the default path.

## pgroup

 set-pgroup true|false


If "pgroup" is true, child processes are placed into their own process group.

The practical upshot of this is that signals like "SIGINT" (from users pressing "^C") won't be received by the child process.

The default for this flag is false, because usually you want "^C" to kill the subprocess. Guestfish sets this flag to true when used interactively, so that "^C" can cancel long-running commands gracefully (see user-cancel'').

## program

 set-program program


Set the program name. This is an informative string which the main program may optionally set in the handle.

When the handle is created, the program name in the handle is set to the basename from "argv[0]". If that was not possible, it is set to the empty string (but never "NULL").

## qemu

 set-qemu hv


Set the hypervisor binary (usually qemu) that we will use.

The default is chosen when the library was compiled by the configure script.

You can also override this by setting the "LIBGUESTFS_HV" environment variable.

Setting "hv" to "NULL" restores the default qemu binary.

Note that you should call this function as early as possible after creating the handle. This is because some pre-launch operations depend on testing qemu features (by running "qemu -help"). If the qemu binary changes, we don't retest features, and so you might see inconsistent results. Using the environment variable "LIBGUESTFS_HV" is safest of all since that picks the qemu binary at the same time as the handle is created.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the set-hv'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## recovery-proc

 set-recovery-proc true|false


If this is called with the parameter "false" then launch'' does not create a recovery process. The purpose of the recovery process is to stop runaway hypervisor processes in the case where the main program aborts abruptly.

This only has any effect if called before launch'', and the default is true.

About the only time when you would want to disable this is if the main process will fork itself into the background (daemonize'' itself). In this case the recovery process thinks that the main program has disappeared and so kills the hypervisor, which is not very helpful.

## selinux

 set-selinux true|false


This sets the selinux flag that is passed to the appliance at boot time. The default is "selinux=0" (disabled).

Note that if SELinux is enabled, it is always in Permissive mode ("enforcing=0").

## smp

 set-smp smp


Change the number of virtual CPUs assigned to the appliance. The default is 1. Increasing this may improve performance, though often it has no effect.

This function must be called before launch''.

## tmpdir

 set-tmpdir tmpdir


Set the directory used by the handle to store temporary files.

The environment variables "LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR" and "TMPDIR" control the default value: If "LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR" is set, then that is the default. Else if "TMPDIR" is set, then that is the default. Else /tmp is the default.

## trace

 set-trace true|false


If the command trace flag is set to 1, then libguestfs calls, parameters and return values are traced.

If you want to trace C API calls into libguestfs (and other libraries) then possibly a better way is to use the external ltrace(1) command.

Command traces are disabled unless the environment variable "LIBGUESTFS_TRACE" is defined and set to 1.

Trace messages are normally sent to "stderr", unless you register a callback to send them somewhere else (see set-event-callback'').

## set-uuid

 set-uuid device uuid


Set the filesystem UUID on "device" to "uuid". If this fails and the errno is ENOTSUP, means that there is no support for changing the UUID for the type of the specified filesystem.

Only some filesystem types support setting UUIDs.

To read the UUID on a filesystem, call vfs-uuid''.

## set-uuid-random

 set-uuid-random device


Set the filesystem UUID on "device" to a random UUID. If this fails and the errno is ENOTSUP, means that there is no support for changing the UUID for the type of the specified filesystem.

Only some filesystem types support setting UUIDs.

To read the UUID on a filesystem, call vfs-uuid''.

## verbose

 set-verbose true|false


If "verbose" is true, this turns on verbose messages.

Verbose messages are disabled unless the environment variable "LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG" is defined and set to 1.

Verbose messages are normally sent to "stderr", unless you register a callback to send them somewhere else (see set-event-callback'').

## setcon

 setcon context


This sets the SELinux security context of the daemon to the string "context".

See the documentation about SELINUX in guestfs(3).

This command depends on the feature "selinux". See also feature-available''.

## setxattr

 setxattr xattr val vallen path


This call sets the extended attribute named "xattr" of the file "path" to the value "val" (of length "vallen"). The value is arbitrary 8 bit data.

See also: lsetxattr'', attr(5).

This command depends on the feature "linuxxattrs". See also feature-available''.

## sfdisk

 sfdisk device cyls heads sectors 'lines ...'


This is a direct interface to the sfdisk(8) program for creating partitions on block devices.

"device" should be a block device, for example /dev/sda.

"cyls", "heads" and "sectors" are the number of cylinders, heads and sectors on the device, which are passed directly to sfdisk as the -C, -H and -S parameters. If you pass 0 for any of these, then the corresponding parameter is omitted. Usually for 'large' disks, you can just pass 0 for these, but for small (floppy-sized) disks, sfdisk (or rather, the kernel) cannot work out the right geometry and you will need to tell it.

"lines" is a list of lines that we feed to "sfdisk". For more information refer to the sfdisk(8) manpage.

To create a single partition occupying the whole disk, you would pass "lines" as a single element list, when the single element being the string "," (comma).

See also: sfdisk-l'', sfdisk-N'', part-init''

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the part-add'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## sfdiskM

 sfdiskM device 'lines ...'


This is a simplified interface to the sfdisk'' command, where partition sizes are specified in megabytes only (rounded to the nearest cylinder) and you don't need to specify the cyls, heads and sectors parameters which were rarely if ever used anyway.

See also: sfdisk'', the sfdisk(8) manpage and part-disk''

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the part-add'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## sfdisk-N

 sfdisk-N device partnum cyls heads sectors line


This runs sfdisk(8) option to modify just the single partition "n" (note: "n" counts from 1).

For other parameters, see sfdisk''. You should usually pass 0 for the cyls/heads/sectors parameters.

See also: part-add''

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the part-add'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## sfdisk-disk-geometry

 sfdisk-disk-geometry device


This displays the disk geometry of "device" read from the partition table. Especially in the case where the underlying block device has been resized, this can be different from the kernel's idea of the geometry (see sfdisk-kernel-geometry'').

The result is in human-readable format, and not designed to be parsed.

## sfdisk-kernel-geometry

 sfdisk-kernel-geometry device


This displays the kernel's idea of the geometry of "device".

The result is in human-readable format, and not designed to be parsed.

## sfdisk-l

 sfdisk-l device


This displays the partition table on "device", in the human-readable output of the sfdisk(8) command. It is not intended to be parsed.

See also: part-list''

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the part-list'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## sh

 sh command


This call runs a command from the guest filesystem via the guest's /bin/sh.

This is like command'', but passes the command to:

 /bin/sh -c "command"


Depending on the guest's shell, this usually results in wildcards being expanded, shell expressions being interpolated and so on.

All the provisos about command'' apply to this call.

## sh-lines

 sh-lines command


This is the same as sh'', but splits the result into a list of lines.

See also: command-lines''

## shutdown

 shutdown


This is the opposite of launch''. It performs an orderly shutdown of the backend process(es). If the autosync flag is set (which is the default) then the disk image is synchronized.

If the subprocess exits with an error then this function will return an error, which should not be ignored (it may indicate that the disk image could not be written out properly).

It is safe to call this multiple times. Extra calls are ignored.

This call does not close or free up the handle. You still need to call close'' afterwards.

close'' will call this if you don't do it explicitly, but note that any errors are ignored in that case.

## sleep

 sleep secs


Sleep for "secs" seconds.

## stat

 stat path


Returns file information for the given "path".

This is the same as the stat(2) system call.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the statns'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## statns

 statns path


Returns file information for the given "path".

This is the same as the stat(2) system call.

## statvfs

 statvfs path


Returns file system statistics for any mounted file system. "path" should be a file or directory in the mounted file system (typically it is the mount point itself, but it doesn't need to be).

This is the same as the statvfs(2) system call.

## strings

 strings path


This runs the strings(1) command on a file and returns the list of printable strings found.

The "strings" command has, in the past, had problems with parsing untrusted files. These are mitigated in the current version of libguestfs, but see CVE-2014-8484'' in guestfs(3).

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3).

## strings-e

 strings-e encoding path


This is like the strings'' command, but allows you to specify the encoding of strings that are looked for in the source file "path".

Allowed encodings are:

s
Single 7-bit-byte characters like ASCII and the ASCII-compatible parts of ISO-8859-X (this is what strings'' uses).
S
Single 8-bit-byte characters.
b
16-bit big endian strings such as those encoded in UTF-16BE or UCS-2BE.
l (lower case letter L)
16-bit little endian such as UTF-16LE and UCS-2LE. This is useful for examining binaries in Windows guests.
B
32-bit big endian such as UCS-4BE.
L
32-bit little endian such as UCS-4LE.

The returned strings are transcoded to UTF-8.

The "strings" command has, in the past, had problems with parsing untrusted files. These are mitigated in the current version of libguestfs, but see CVE-2014-8484'' in guestfs(3).

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3).

## swapoff-device

 swapoff-device device


This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap device or partition named "device". See swapon-device''.

## swapoff-file

 swapoff-file file


This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap on file.

## swapoff-label

 swapoff-label label


This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap on labeled swap partition.

## swapoff-uuid

 swapoff-uuid uuid


This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap partition with the given UUID.

This command depends on the feature "linuxfsuuid". See also feature-available''.

## swapon-device

 swapon-device device


This command enables the libguestfs appliance to use the swap device or partition named "device". The increased memory is made available for all commands, for example those run using command'' or sh''.

Note that you should not swap to existing guest swap partitions unless you know what you are doing. They may contain hibernation information, or other information that the guest doesn't want you to trash. You also risk leaking information about the host to the guest this way. Instead, attach a new host device to the guest and swap on that.

## swapon-file

 swapon-file file


This command enables swap to a file. See swapon-device'' for other notes.

## swapon-label

 swapon-label label


This command enables swap to a labeled swap partition. See swapon-device'' for other notes.

## swapon-uuid

 swapon-uuid uuid


This command enables swap to a swap partition with the given UUID. See swapon-device'' for other notes.

This command depends on the feature "linuxfsuuid". See also feature-available''.

## sync

 sync


This syncs the disk, so that any writes are flushed through to the underlying disk image.

You should always call this if you have modified a disk image, before closing the handle.

## syslinux

 syslinux device [directory:..]


Install the SYSLINUX bootloader on "device".

The device parameter must be either a whole disk formatted as a FAT filesystem, or a partition formatted as a FAT filesystem. In the latter case, the partition should be marked as active'' (part-set-bootable'') and a Master Boot Record must be installed (eg. using pwrite-device'') on the first sector of the whole disk. The SYSLINUX package comes with some suitable Master Boot Records. See the syslinux(1) man page for further information.

The optional arguments are:

directory
Install SYSLINUX in the named subdirectory, instead of in the root directory of the FAT filesystem.

Additional configuration can be supplied to SYSLINUX by placing a file called syslinux.cfg on the FAT filesystem, either in the root directory, or under directory if that optional argument is being used. For further information about the contents of this file, see syslinux(1).

See also extlinux''.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

This command depends on the feature "syslinux". See also feature-available''.

## tail

 tail path


This command returns up to the last 10 lines of a file as a list of strings.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3).

## tail-n

 tail-n nrlines path


If the parameter "nrlines" is a positive number, this returns the last "nrlines" lines of the file "path".

If the parameter "nrlines" is a negative number, this returns lines from the file "path", starting with the "-nrlines"th line.

If the parameter "nrlines" is zero, this returns an empty list.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3).

## tar-in-opts

 tar-in (tarfile|-) directory [compress:..] [xattrs:true|false] [selinux:true|false] [acls:true|false]


This command uploads and unpacks local file "tarfile" into directory.

The optional "compress" flag controls compression. If not given, then the input should be an uncompressed tar file. Otherwise one of the following strings may be given to select the compression type of the input file: "compress", "gzip", "bzip2", "xz", "lzop". (Note that not all builds of libguestfs will support all of these compression types).

The other optional arguments are:

"xattrs"
If set to true, extended attributes are restored from the tar file.
"selinux"
If set to true, SELinux contexts are restored from the tar file.
"acls"
If set to true, POSIX ACLs are restored from the tar file.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

## tar-out-opts

 tar-out directory (tarfile|-) [compress:..] [numericowner:true|false] [excludes:..] [xattrs:true|false] [selinux:true|false] [acls:true|false]


This command packs the contents of directory and downloads it to local file "tarfile".

The optional "compress" flag controls compression. If not given, then the output will be an uncompressed tar file. Otherwise one of the following strings may be given to select the compression type of the output file: "compress", "gzip", "bzip2", "xz", "lzop". (Note that not all builds of libguestfs will support all of these compression types).

The other optional arguments are:

"excludes"
A list of wildcards. Files are excluded if they match any of the wildcards.
"numericowner"
If set to true, the output tar file will contain UID/GID numbers instead of user/group names.
"xattrs"
If set to true, extended attributes are saved in the output tar.
"selinux"
If set to true, SELinux contexts are saved in the output tar.
"acls"
If set to true, POSIX ACLs are saved in the output tar.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

## tgz-in

 tgz-in (tarball|-) directory


This command uploads and unpacks local file "tarball" (a gzip compressed tar file) into directory.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the tar-in'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## tgz-out

 tgz-out directory (tarball|-)


This command packs the contents of directory and downloads it to local file "tarball".

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the tar-out'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## touch

 touch path


Touch acts like the touch(1) command. It can be used to update the timestamps on a file, or, if the file does not exist, to create a new zero-length file.

This command only works on regular files, and will fail on other file types such as directories, symbolic links, block special etc.

## truncate

 truncate path


This command truncates "path" to a zero-length file. The file must exist already.

## truncate-size

 truncate-size path size


This command truncates "path" to size "size" bytes. The file must exist already.

If the current file size is less than "size" then the file is extended to the required size with zero bytes. This creates a sparse file (ie. disk blocks are not allocated for the file until you write to it). To create a non-sparse file of zeroes, use fallocate64'' instead.

## tune2fs

 tune2fs device [force:true|false] [maxmountcount:N] [mountcount:N] [errorbehavior:..] [group:N] [intervalbetweenchecks:N] [reservedblockspercentage:N] [lastmounteddirectory:..] [reservedblockscount:N] [user:N]


This call allows you to adjust various filesystem parameters of an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem called "device".

The optional parameters are:

"force"
Force tune2fs to complete the operation even in the face of errors. This is the same as the tune2fs "-f" option.
"maxmountcount"
Set the number of mounts after which the filesystem is checked by e2fsck(8). If this is 0 then the number of mounts is disregarded. This is the same as the tune2fs "-c" option.
"mountcount"
Set the number of times the filesystem has been mounted. This is the same as the tune2fs "-C" option.
"errorbehavior"
Change the behavior of the kernel code when errors are detected. Possible values currently are: "continue", "remount-ro", "panic". In practice these options don't really make any difference, particularly for write errors.

This is the same as the tune2fs "-e" option.

"group"
Set the group which can use reserved filesystem blocks. This is the same as the tune2fs "-g" option except that it can only be specified as a number.
"intervalbetweenchecks"
Adjust the maximal time between two filesystem checks (in seconds). If the option is passed as 0 then time-dependent checking is disabled.

This is the same as the tune2fs "-i" option.

"reservedblockspercentage"
Set the percentage of the filesystem which may only be allocated by privileged processes. This is the same as the tune2fs "-m" option.
"lastmounteddirectory"
Set the last mounted directory. This is the same as the tune2fs "-M" option.
"reservedblockscount" Set the number of reserved filesystem blocks. This is the same as the tune2fs "-r" option.
"user"
Set the user who can use the reserved filesystem blocks. This is the same as the tune2fs "-u" option except that it can only be specified as a number.

To get the current values of filesystem parameters, see tune2fs-l''. For precise details of how tune2fs works, see the tune2fs(8) man page.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

## tune2fs-l

 tune2fs-l device


This returns the contents of the ext2, ext3 or ext4 filesystem superblock on "device".

It is the same as running "tune2fs -l device". See tune2fs(8) manpage for more details. The list of fields returned isn't clearly defined, and depends on both the version of "tune2fs" that libguestfs was built against, and the filesystem itself.

## txz-in

 txz-in (tarball|-) directory


This command uploads and unpacks local file "tarball" (an xz compressed tar file) into directory.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the tar-in'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

This command depends on the feature "xz". See also feature-available''.

## txz-out

 txz-out directory (tarball|-)


This command packs the contents of directory and downloads it to local file "tarball" (as an xz compressed tar archive).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the tar-out'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

This command depends on the feature "xz". See also feature-available''.

 umask mask


This function sets the mask used for creating new files and device nodes to "mask & 0777".

Typical umask values would be 022 which creates new files with permissions like -rw-r---r--'' or -rwxr-xr-x'', and 002 which creates new files with permissions like -rw-rw-r--'' or -rwxrwxr-x''.

The default umask is 022. This is important because it means that directories and device nodes will be created with 0644 or 0755 mode even if you specify 0777.

See also get-umask'', umask(2), mknod'', mkdir''.

This call returns the previous umask.

## umount-opts

 umount pathordevice [force:true|false] [lazyunmount:true|false]


This unmounts the given filesystem. The filesystem may be specified either by its mountpoint (path) or the device which contains the filesystem.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

## unmount-all

 umount-all


This unmounts all mounted filesystems.

Some internal mounts are not unmounted by this call.

## umount-local

 umount-local [retry:true|false]


If libguestfs is exporting the filesystem on a local mountpoint, then this unmounts it.

See MOUNT LOCAL'' in guestfs(3) for full documentation.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

 upload (filename|-) remotefilename


Upload local file filename to remotefilename on the filesystem.

filename can also be a named pipe.

See also download''.

 upload-offset (filename|-) remotefilename offset


Upload local file filename to remotefilename on the filesystem.

remotefilename is overwritten starting at the byte "offset" specified. The intention is to overwrite parts of existing files or devices, although if a non-existent file is specified then it is created with a hole'' before "offset". The size of the data written is implicit in the size of the source filename.

Note that there is no limit on the amount of data that can be uploaded with this call, unlike with pwrite'', and this call always writes the full amount unless an error occurs.

See also upload'', pwrite''.

## user-cancel

 user-cancel


Unlike most other libguestfs calls, this function is signal safe and thread safe. You can call it from a signal handler or from another thread, without needing to do any locking.

The transfer that was in progress (if there is one) will stop shortly afterwards, and will return an error. The errno (see guestfs_last_errno'') is set to "EINTR", so you can test for this to find out if the operation was cancelled or failed because of another error.

No cleanup is performed: for example, if a file was being uploaded then after cancellation there may be a partially uploaded file. It is the caller's responsibility to clean up if necessary.

There are two common places that you might call user-cancel'':

In an interactive text-based program, you might call it from a "SIGINT" signal handler so that pressing "^C" cancels the current operation. (You also need to call guestfs_set_pgroup'' so that child processes don't receive the "^C" signal).

In a graphical program, when the main thread is displaying a progress bar with a cancel button, wire up the cancel button to call this function.

## utimens

 utimens path atsecs atnsecs mtsecs mtnsecs


This command sets the timestamps of a file with nanosecond precision.

"atsecs, atnsecs" are the last access time (atime) in secs and nanoseconds from the epoch.

"mtsecs, mtnsecs" are the last modification time (mtime) in secs and nanoseconds from the epoch.

If the *nsecs field contains the special value "-1" then the corresponding timestamp is set to the current time. (The *secs field is ignored in this case).

If the *nsecs field contains the special value "-2" then the corresponding timestamp is left unchanged. (The *secs field is ignored in this case).

## utsname

 utsname


This returns the kernel version of the appliance, where this is available. This information is only useful for debugging. Nothing in the returned structure is defined by the API.

## version

 version


Return the libguestfs version number that the program is linked against.

Note that because of dynamic linking this is not necessarily the version of libguestfs that you compiled against. You can compile the program, and then at runtime dynamically link against a completely different libguestfs.so library.

This call was added in version 1.0.58. In previous versions of libguestfs there was no way to get the version number. From C code you can use dynamic linker functions to find out if this symbol exists (if it doesn't, then it's an earlier version).

The call returns a structure with four elements. The first three ("major", "minor" and "release") are numbers and correspond to the usual version triplet. The fourth element ("extra") is a string and is normally empty, but may be used for distro-specific information.

To construct the original version string: "$major.$minor.$release$extra"

See also: LIBGUESTFS VERSION NUMBERS'' in guestfs(3).

Note: Don't use this call to test for availability of features. In enterprise distributions we backport features from later versions into earlier versions, making this an unreliable way to test for features. Use available'' or feature-available'' instead.

## vfs-label

 vfs-label mountable


This returns the label of the filesystem on "mountable".

If the filesystem is unlabeled, this returns the empty string.

To find a filesystem from the label, use findfs-label''.

## vfs-minimum-size

 vfs-minimum-size mountable


Get the minimum size of filesystem in bytes. This is the minimum possible size for filesystem shrinking.

If getting minimum size of specified filesystem is not supported, this will fail and set errno as ENOTSUP.

## vfs-type

 vfs-type mountable


This command gets the filesystem type corresponding to the filesystem on "mountable".

For most filesystems, the result is the name of the Linux VFS module which would be used to mount this filesystem if you mounted it without specifying the filesystem type. For example a string such as "ext3" or "ntfs".

## get-uuid

 vfs-uuid mountable


This returns the filesystem UUID of the filesystem on "mountable".

If the filesystem does not have a UUID, this returns the empty string.

To find a filesystem from the UUID, use findfs-uuid''.

## vg-activate

 vg-activate true|false 'volgroups ...'


This command activates or (if "activate" is false) deactivates all logical volumes in the listed volume groups "volgroups".

This command is the same as running "vgchange -a y|n volgroups..."

Note that if "volgroups" is an empty list then all volume groups are activated or deactivated.

This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''.

## vg-activate-all

 vg-activate-all true|false


This command activates or (if "activate" is false) deactivates all logical volumes in all volume groups.

This command is the same as running "vgchange -a y|n"

This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''.

## vgchange-uuid

 vgchange-uuid vg


Generate a new random UUID for the volume group "vg".

This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''.

## vgchange-uuid-all

 vgchange-uuid-all


Generate new random UUIDs for all volume groups.

This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''.

## vgcreate

 vgcreate volgroup 'physvols ...'


This creates an LVM volume group called "volgroup" from the non-empty list of physical volumes "physvols".

This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''.

## vglvuuids

 vglvuuids vgname


Given a VG called "vgname", this returns the UUIDs of all the logical volumes created in this volume group.

You can use this along with lvs'' and lvuuid'' calls to associate logical volumes and volume groups.

See also vgpvuuids''.

## vgmeta

 vgmeta vgname


"vgname" is an LVM volume group. This command examines the volume group and returns its metadata.

Note that the metadata is an internal structure used by LVM, subject to change at any time, and is provided for information only.

This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''.

## vgpvuuids

 vgpvuuids vgname


Given a VG called "vgname", this returns the UUIDs of all the physical volumes that this volume group resides on.

You can use this along with pvs'' and pvuuid'' calls to associate physical volumes and volume groups.

See also vglvuuids''.

## vgremove

 vgremove vgname


Remove an LVM volume group "vgname", (for example "VG").

This also forcibly removes all logical volumes in the volume group (if any).

This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''.

## vgrename

 vgrename volgroup newvolgroup


Rename a volume group "volgroup" with the new name "newvolgroup".

## vgs

 vgs


List all the volumes groups detected. This is the equivalent of the vgs(8) command.

This returns a list of just the volume group names that were detected (eg. "VolGroup00").

See also vgs-full''.

This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''.

## vgs-full

 vgs-full


List all the volumes groups detected. This is the equivalent of the vgs(8) command. The full'' version includes all fields.

This command depends on the feature "lvm2". See also feature-available''.

## vgscan

 vgscan


This rescans all block devices and rebuilds the list of LVM physical volumes, volume groups and logical volumes.

## vguuid

 vguuid vgname


This command returns the UUID of the LVM VG named "vgname".

## wc-c

 wc-c path


This command counts the characters in a file, using the "wc -c" external command.

## wc-l

 wc-l path


This command counts the lines in a file, using the "wc -l" external command.

## wc-w

 wc-w path


This command counts the words in a file, using the "wc -w" external command.

## wipefs

 wipefs device


This command erases filesystem or RAID signatures from the specified "device" to make the filesystem invisible to libblkid.

This does not erase the filesystem itself nor any other data from the "device".

Compare with zero'' which zeroes the first few blocks of a device.

This command depends on the feature "wipefs". See also feature-available''.

## write

 write path content


This call creates a file called "path". The content of the file is the string "content" (which can contain any 8 bit data).

See also write-append''.

## write-append

 write-append path content


This call appends "content" to the end of file "path". If "path" does not exist, then a new file is created.

See also write''.

## write-file

 write-file path content size


This call creates a file called "path". The contents of the file is the string "content" (which can contain any 8 bit data), with length "size".

As a special case, if "size" is 0 then the length is calculated using "strlen" (so in this case the content cannot contain embedded ASCII NULs).

NB. Owing to a bug, writing content containing ASCII NUL characters does not work, even if the length is specified.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the write'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

 xfs-admin device [extunwritten:true|false] [imgfile:true|false] [v2log:true|false] [projid32bit:true|false] [lazycounter:true|false] [label:..] [uuid:..]


Change the parameters of the XFS filesystem on "device".

Devices that are mounted cannot be modified. Administrators must unmount filesystems before this call can modify parameters.

Some of the parameters of a mounted filesystem can be examined and modified using the xfs-info'' and xfs-growfs'' calls.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

This command depends on the feature "xfs". See also feature-available''.

## xfs-growfs

 xfs-growfs path [datasec:true|false] [logsec:true|false] [rtsec:true|false] [datasize:N] [logsize:N] [rtsize:N] [rtextsize:N] [maxpct:N]


Grow the XFS filesystem mounted at "path".

The returned struct contains geometry information. Missing fields are returned as "-1" (for numeric fields) or empty string.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

This command depends on the feature "xfs". See also feature-available''.

## xfs-info

 xfs-info pathordevice


"pathordevice" is a mounted XFS filesystem or a device containing an XFS filesystem. This command returns the geometry of the filesystem.

The returned struct contains geometry information. Missing fields are returned as "-1" (for numeric fields) or empty string.

This command depends on the feature "xfs". See also feature-available''.

## xfs-repair

 xfs-repair device [forcelogzero:true|false] [nomodify:true|false] [noprefetch:true|false] [forcegeometry:true|false] [maxmem:N] [ihashsize:N] [bhashsize:N] [agstride:N] [logdev:..] [rtdev:..]


Repair corrupt or damaged XFS filesystem on "device".

The filesystem is specified using the "device" argument which should be the device name of the disk partition or volume containing the filesystem. If given the name of a block device, "xfs_repair" will attempt to find the raw device associated with the specified block device and will use the raw device instead.

Regardless, the filesystem to be repaired must be unmounted, otherwise, the resulting filesystem may be inconsistent or corrupt.

The returned status indicates whether filesystem corruption was detected (returns 1) or was not detected (returns 0).

This command has one or more optional arguments. See OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS''.

This command depends on the feature "xfs". See also feature-available''.

## zegrep

 zegrep regex path


This calls the external "zegrep" program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the grep'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## zegrepi

 zegrepi regex path


This calls the external "zegrep -i" program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the grep'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## zero

 zero device


This command writes zeroes over the first few blocks of "device".

How many blocks are zeroed isn't specified (but it's not enough to securely wipe the device). It should be sufficient to remove any partition tables, filesystem superblocks and so on.

If blocks are already zero, then this command avoids writing zeroes. This prevents the underlying device from becoming non-sparse or growing unnecessarily.

See also: zero-device'', scrub-device'', is-zero-device''

## zero-device

 zero-device device


This command writes zeroes over the entire "device". Compare with zero'' which just zeroes the first few blocks of a device.

If blocks are already zero, then this command avoids writing zeroes. This prevents the underlying device from becoming non-sparse or growing unnecessarily.

## zero-free-space

 zero-free-space directory


Zero the free space in the filesystem mounted on directory. The filesystem must be mounted read-write.

The filesystem contents are not affected, but any free space in the filesystem is freed.

Free space is not trimmed''. You may want to call fstrim'' either as an alternative to this, or after calling this, depending on your requirements.

## zerofree

 zerofree device


This runs the zerofree program on "device". This program claims to zero unused inodes and disk blocks on an ext2/3 filesystem, thus making it possible to compress the filesystem more effectively.

You should not run this program if the filesystem is mounted.

It is possible that using this program can damage the filesystem or data on the filesystem.

This command depends on the feature "zerofree". See also feature-available''.

## zfgrep

 zfgrep pattern path


This calls the external "zfgrep" program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the grep'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## zfgrepi

 zfgrepi pattern path


This calls the external "zfgrep -i" program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the grep'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## zfile

 zfile meth path


This command runs file after first decompressing "path" using "method".

"method" must be one of "gzip", "compress" or "bzip2".

Since 1.0.63, use file'' instead which can now process compressed files.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the file'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## zgrep

 zgrep regex path


This calls the external "zgrep" program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the grep'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## zgrepi

 zgrepi regex path


This calls the external "zgrep -i" program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See PROTOCOL LIMITS'' in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the grep'' call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## EXIT STATUS

guestfish returns 0 if the commands completed without error, or 1 if there was an error.

## ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

EDITOR
The "edit" command uses $EDITOR as the editor. If not set, it uses "vi". GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE The "display" command uses$GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE to display images. If not set, it uses display(1).
GUESTFISH_INIT
Printed when guestfish starts. See PROMPT''.
GUESTFISH_OUTPUT
Printed before guestfish output. See PROMPT''.
GUESTFISH_PID
Used with the --remote option to specify the remote guestfish process to control. See section REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET''.
GUESTFISH_PS1
Set the command prompt. See PROMPT''.
GUESTFISH_RESTORE
Printed before guestfish exits. See PROMPT''.
HEXEDITOR
The hexedit'' command uses $HEXEDITOR as the external hex editor. If not specified, the external hexedit(1) program is used. HOME If compiled with GNU readline support, various files in the home directory can be used. See FILES''. LIBGUESTFS_APPEND Pass additional options to the guest kernel. LIBGUESTFS_ATTACH_METHOD This is the old way to set "LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND". LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND Choose the default way to create the appliance. See guestfs_set_backend'' in guestfs(3). LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND_SETTINGS A colon-separated list of backend-specific settings. See BACKEND'' in guestfs(3), BACKEND SETTINGS'' in guestfs(3). LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR The location where libguestfs will cache its appliance, when using a supermin appliance. The appliance is cached and shared between all handles which have the same effective user ID. If "LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR" is not set, then "TMPDIR" is used. If "TMPDIR" is not set, then /var/tmp is used. See also LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR'', set-cachedir''. LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG Set "LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1" to enable verbose messages. This has the same effect as using the -v option. LIBGUESTFS_HV Set the default hypervisor (usually qemu) binary that libguestfs uses. If not set, then the qemu which was found at compile time by the configure script is used. LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE Set the memory allocated to the qemu process, in megabytes. For example:  LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE=700  LIBGUESTFS_PATH Set the path that guestfish uses to search for kernel and initrd.img. See the discussion of paths in guestfs(3). LIBGUESTFS_QEMU This is the old way to set "LIBGUESTFS_HV". LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR The location where libguestfs will store temporary files used by each handle. If "LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR" is not set, then "TMPDIR" is used. If "TMPDIR" is not set, then /tmp is used. See also LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR'', set-tmpdir''. LIBGUESTFS_TRACE Set "LIBGUESTFS_TRACE=1" to enable command traces. PAGER The "more" command uses$PAGER as the pager. If not set, it uses "more".
PATH
Libguestfs and guestfish may run some external programs, and rely on $PATH being set to a reasonable value. If using the libvirt backend, libvirt will not work at all unless$PATH contains the path of qemu/KVM.
SUPERMIN_KERNEL
SUPERMIN_KERNEL_VERSION
SUPERMIN_MODULES
These three environment variables allow the kernel that libguestfs uses in the appliance to be selected. If $SUPERMIN_KERNEL is not set, then the most recent host kernel is chosen. For more information about kernel selection, see supermin(1). TMPDIR See LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR'', LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR''. ## FILES$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/libguestfs/libguestfs-tools.conf
$HOME/.libguestfs-tools.rc$XDG_CONFIG_DIRS/libguestfs/libguestfs-tools.conf
/etc/libguestfs-tools.conf
This configuration file controls the default read-only or read-write mode (--ro or --rw).

See libguestfs-tools.conf(5).

$HOME/.guestfish If compiled with GNU readline support, then the command history is saved in this file.$HOME/.inputrc
/etc/inputrc
If compiled with GNU readline support, then these files can be used to configure readline. For further information, please see INITIALIZATION FILE'' in readline(3).

To write rules which only apply to guestfish, use:

 $if guestfish ...$endif


Variables that you can set in inputrc that change the behaviour of guestfish in useful ways include:

completion-ignore-case (default: on)
By default, guestfish will ignore case when tab-completing paths on the disk. Use:

 set completion-ignore-case off


to make guestfish case sensitive.

test1.img
test2.img (etc)
When using the -N or --new option, the prepared disk or filesystem will be created in the file test1.img in the current directory. The second use of -N will use test2.img and so on. Any existing file with the same name will be overwritten. You can use a different filename by using the "filename=" prefix.

## AUTHORS

Richard W.M. Jones ("rjones at redhat dot com")

Copyright (C) 2009-2016 Red Hat Inc.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

## BUGS

To get a list of bugs against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/buglist.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

To report a new bug against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

When reporting a bug, please supply:

• The version of libguestfs.
• Where you got libguestfs (eg. which Linux distro, compiled from source, etc)
• Describe the bug accurately and give a way to reproduce it.
• Run libguestfs-test-tool(1) and paste the complete, unedited output into the bug report.