 Catmandu::Iterable(3) Base class for all iterable Catmandu classes

## SYNOPSIS

# Create an example Iterable using the Catmandu::Importer::Mock class
my \$it = Catmandu::Importer::Mock->new(size => 10);
my \$array_ref = \$it->to_array;
my \$num = \$it->count;
# Loop functions
\$it->each(sub { print shift->{n} });
my \$item = \$it->first;
\$it->rest
->each(sub { print shift->{n} });
\$it->slice(3,2)
->each(sub { print shift->{n} });
\$it->take(5)
->each(sub { print shift->{n} });
\$it->group(5)
->each(sub { printf "group of %d items\n" , shift->count});
\$it->tap(\&logme)->tap(\&printme)->tap(\&mailme)
->each(sub { print shift->{n} });
my \$titles = \$it->pluck('title')->to_array;
# Select and loop
my \$item = \$it->detect(sub { shift->{n} > 5 });
\$it->select(sub { shift->{n} > 5})
->each(sub { print shift->{n} });
\$it->reject(sub { shift->{n} > 5})
->each(sub { print shift->{n} });
# Boolean
if (\$it->any(sub { shift->{n} > 5}) {
.. at least one n > 5 ..
}
if (\$it->many(sub { shift->{n} > 5}) {
.. at least two n > 5 ..
}
if (\$it->all(sub { shift->{n} > 5}) {
.. all n > 5 ..
}
# Modify and summary
my \$it2 = \$it->map(sub { shift->{n} * 2 });
my \$sum = \$it2->reduce(0,sub {
my (\$prev,\$this) = @_;
\$prev + \$this;
});
my \$it3 = \$it->group(2)->invoke('to_array');
# Calculate maximum of 'n' field
my \$max = \$it->max(sub {
shift->{n};
});
# Calculate minimum of 'n' field
my \$in = \$it->min(sub {
shift->{n};
});

## DESCRIPTION

The Catmandu::Iterable class provides many list methods to Iterators such as Importers and Exporters. Most of the methods are lazy if the underlying datastream supports it. Beware of idempotence: many iterators contain state information and calls will give different results on a second invocation.

## to_array

Return all the items in the Iterator as an ARRAY ref.

## count

Return the count of all the items in the Iterator.

LOOPING

## each(\&callback)

For each item in the Iterator execute the callback function with the item as first argument. Returns the number of items in the Iterator.

## first

Return the first item from the Iterator.

## rest

Returns an Iterator containing everything except the first item.

## slice(INDEX,LENGTH)

Returns an Iterator starting at the item at INDEX returning at most LENGTH results.

## take(NUM)

Returns an Iterator with the first NUM results.

## group(NUM)

Splitting the Iterator into NUM parts and returning an Iterator for each part.

## interleave(@iterators)

Returns an Iterator which returns the first item of each iterator then the second of each and so on.

## contains(\$data)

Alias for "includes".

## includes(\$data)

return true if any item in the collection is deeply equal to \$data.

## tap(\&callback)

Returns a copy of the Iterator and executing callback on each item. This method works like the Unix tee command. Use this command to peek into an iterable while it is processing results. E.g. you are writing code to process an iterable and wrote something like:

```   \$it->each(sub {
# Very complicated routine
...
});
```

Now you would like to benchmark this piece of code (how fast are we processing). This can be done by tapping into the iterator and calling a 'benchmark' subroutine in your program that for instance counts the number of items divided by the execution time.

```   \$it->tap(\&benchmark)->each(sub {
# Very complicated routine
...
});
sub benchmark {
my \$item = shift;
\$start ||= time;
\$count++;
printf "%d recs/sec\n" , \$count/(time - \$start + 1) if \$count % 100 == 0;
}
```

Note that the "benchmark" method already implements this common case.

## detect(\&callback)

Returns the first item for which callback returns a true value.

## detect(qr/..../)

If the iterator contains STRING values, then return the first item which matches the regex.

## detect(\$key => \$val)

If the iterator contains HASH values, then return the first item where the value of \$key is equal to val.

## detect(\$key => qr/..../)

If the iterator contains HASH values, then return the first item where the value of \$key matches the regex.

## detect(\$key => [\$val, ...])

If the iterator contains HASH values, then return the first item where the value of \$key is equal to any of the vals given.

## pluck(\$key)

Return an Iterator that only contains the values of the given \$key.

## select(\&callback)

Returns an Iterator for each item for which callback returns a true value.

## select(qr/..../)

If the iterator contains STRING values, then return each item which matches the regex.

## select(\$key => \$val)

If the iterator contains HASH values, then return each item where the value of \$key is equal to val.

## select(\$key => qr/..../)

If the iterator contains HASH values, then return each item where the value of \$key matches the regex.

## select(\$key => [\$val, ...])

If the iterator contains HASH values, then return each item where the value of \$key is equal to any of the vals given.

## grep( ... )

Alias for "select( ... )".

## reject(\&callback)

Returns an Iterator for each item for which callback returns a false value.

## reject(qr/..../)

If the iterator contains STRING values, then reject every item except those matching the regex.

## reject(\$key => qr/..../)

If the iterator contains HASH values, then reject every item for where the value of \$key DOESN'T match the regex.

## reject(\$key => \$val)

If the iterator contains HASH values, then return each item where the value of \$key is NOT equal to val.

## reject(\$key => [\$val, ...])

If the iterator contains HASH values, then return each item where the value of \$key is NOT equal to any of the vals given.

## sorted

Returns an Iterator with items sorted lexically. Note that sorting requires memory because all items are buffered in a Catmandu::ArrayIterator.

## sorted(\&callback)

Returns an Iterator with items sorted by a callback. The callback is expected to returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than 0. The following code snippets result in the equal arrays:

```    \$iterator->sorted(\&callback)->to_array
[ sort \&callback @{ \$iterator->to_array } ]
```

## sorted(\$key)

Returns an Iterator with items lexically sorted by a key. This is equivalent to sorting with the following callback:

```    \$iterator->sorted(sub { \$_->{\$key} cmp \$_->{\$key} })
```

EXTERNAL ITERATOR

Catmandu::Iterable behaves like an internal iterator. "next" and "rewind" allow you to use it like an external iterator.

## next

Each call to "next" will return the next item until the iterator is exhausted, then it will keep returning "undef".

```    while (my \$data = \$it->next) {
# do stuff
}
\$it->next; # returns undef
```

## rewind

Rewind the external iterator to the first item.

```    \$it->next; # => {n => 1}
\$it->next; # => {n => 2}
\$it->next; # => {n => 3}
\$it->rewind
\$it->next; # => {n => 1}
```

Note the the iterator must support this behavior. Many importers are not rewindable.

BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS

## any(\&callback)

Returns true if at least one item generates a true value when executing callback.

## many(\&callback)

Alias for "many".

## many(\&callback)

Returns true if at least two items generate a true value when executing callback.

## all(\&callback)

Returns true if all the items generate a true value when executing callback.

MAP & REDUCE

## map(\&callback)

Returns a new Iterator containing for each item the result of the callback.

## reduce([START],\&callback)

Alias for "reduce".

## reduce([START],\&callback)

For each item in the Iterator execute &callback(\$prev,\$item) where \$prev is the option START value or the result of the previous call to callback. Returns the final result of the callback function.

## invoke(NAME)

Returns an interator were the method NAME is called on every object in the iterable. This is a shortcut for \$it->map(sub { \$_->NAME }).

## max()

Returns the maximum of an iterator containing only numbers.

## max(\&callback)

Returns the maximum of the numbers returned by executing callback.

## min()

Returns the minimum of an iterator containing only numbers.

## min(\&callback)

Returns the minimum of the numbers returned by executing callback.

## benchmark()

Prints the number of records processed per second to STDERR.

## format(cols => ['key', ...], col_sep => ' | ', header => 1|0)

Print the iterator data formatted as a spreadsheet like table. Note that this method will load the whole dataset in memory to calculate column widths. See also Catmandu::Exporter::Table for a more elaborated method of printing iterators in tabular form.

## stop_if(\&callback)

Returns a new iterator thats stops processing if the callback returns false.

```    # stop after encountering 3 frobnitzes
my \$frobnitzes = 0;
\$iterator->stop_if(sub {
my \$rec = shift;
\$frobnitzes++ if \$rec->{title} =~ /frobnitz/;
\$frobnitzes > 3;
})->each(sub {
my \$rec = shift;
...
});
```