I18N::LangTags::List(3) tags and names for human languages


use I18N::LangTags::List;
print "Parlez-vous... ", join(', ',
I18N::LangTags::List::name('elx') || 'unknown_language',
I18N::LangTags::List::name('ar-Kw') || 'unknown_language',
I18N::LangTags::List::name('en') || 'unknown_language',
I18N::LangTags::List::name('en-CA') || 'unknown_language',
), "?\n";


  Parlez-vous... Elamite, Kuwait Arabic, English, Canadian English?


This module provides a function "I18N::LangTags::List::name( langtag ) " that takes a language tag (see I18N::LangTags) and returns the best attempt at an English name for it, or undef if it can't make sense of the tag.

The function I18N::LangTags::List::name(...) is not exported.

This module also provides a function "I18N::LangTags::List::is_decent( langtag )" that returns true iff the language tag is syntactically valid and is for general use (like ``fr'' or ``fr-ca'', below). That is, it returns false for tags that are syntactically invalid and for tags, like ``aus'', that are listed in brackets below. This function is not exported.

The map of tags-to-names that it uses is accessible as %I18N::LangTags::List::Name, and it's the same as the list that follows in this documentation, which should be useful to you even if you don't use this module.


Internet language tags, as defined in RFC 3066, are a formalism for denoting human languages. The two-letter ISO 639-1 language codes are well known (as ``en'' for English), as are their forms when qualified by a country code (``en-US''). Less well-known are the arbitrary-length non-ISO codes (like ``i-mingo''), and the recently (in 2001) introduced three-letter ISO-639-2 codes.

Remember these important facts:

  • Language tags are not locale IDs. A locale ID is written with a ``_'' instead of a ``-'', (almost?) always matches "m/^\w\w_\w\w\b/", and means something different than a language tag. A language tag denotes a language. A locale ID denotes a language as used in a particular place, in combination with non-linguistic location-specific information such as what currency is used there. Locales also often denote character set information, as in ``en_US.ISO8859-1''.
  • Language tags are not for computer languages.
  • ``Dialect'' is not a useful term, since there is no objective criterion for establishing when two language-forms are dialects of eachother, or are separate languages.
  • Language tags are not case-sensitive. en-US, en-us, En-Us, etc., are all the same tag, and denote the same language.
  • Not every language tag really refers to a single language. Some language tags refer to conditions: i-default (system-message text in English plus maybe other languages), und (undetermined language). Others (notably lots of the three-letter codes) are bibliographic tags that classify whole groups of languages, as with cus ``Cushitic (Other)'' (i.e., a language that has been classed as Cushtic, but which has no more specific code) or the even less linguistically coherent sai for ``South American Indian (Other)''. Though useful in bibliography, SUCH TAGS ARE NOT FOR GENERAL USE. For further guidance, email me.
  • Language tags are not country codes. In fact, they are often distinct codes, as with language tag ja for Japanese, and ISO 3166 country code ".jp" for Japan.


The first part of each item is the language tag, between {...}. It is followed by an English name for the language or language-group. Language tags that I judge to be not for general use, are bracketed.

This list is in alphabetical order by English name of the language.

{ab} : Abkhazian
eq Abkhaz
{ace} : Achinese
{ach} : Acoli
{ada} : Adangme
{ady} : Adyghe
eq Adygei
{aa} : Afar
{afh} : Afrihili
{af} : Afrikaans
[{afa} : Afro-Asiatic (Other)]
{ak} : Akan
(Formerly ``aka''.)
{akk} : Akkadian
{sq} : Albanian
{ale} : Aleut
[{alg} : Algonquian languages]
NOT Algonquin!
[{tut} : Altaic (Other)]
{am} : Amharic
NOT Aramaic!
{i-ami} : Ami
eq Amis. eq 'Amis. eq Pangca.
[{apa} : Apache languages]
{ar} : Arabic
Many forms are mutually un-intelligible in spoken media. Notable forms: {ar-ae} UAE Arabic; {ar-bh} Bahrain Arabic; {ar-dz} Algerian Arabic; {ar-eg} Egyptian Arabic; {ar-iq} Iraqi Arabic; {ar-jo} Jordanian Arabic; {ar-kw} Kuwait Arabic; {ar-lb} Lebanese Arabic; {ar-ly} Libyan Arabic; {ar-ma} Moroccan Arabic; {ar-om} Omani Arabic; {ar-qa} Qatari Arabic; {ar-sa} Sauda Arabic; {ar-sy} Syrian Arabic; {ar-tn} Tunisian Arabic; {ar-ye} Yemen Arabic.
{arc} : Aramaic
NOT Amharic! NOT Samaritan Aramaic!
{arp} : Arapaho
{arn} : Araucanian
{arw} : Arawak
{hy} : Armenian
{an} : Aragonese
[{art} : Artificial (Other)]
{ast} : Asturian
eq Bable.
{as} : Assamese
[{ath} : Athapascan languages]
eq Athabaskan. eq Athapaskan. eq Athabascan.
[{aus} : Australian languages]
[{map} : Austronesian (Other)]
{av} : Avaric
(Formerly ``ava''.)
{ae} : Avestan
eq Zend
{awa} : Awadhi
{ay} : Aymara
{az} : Azerbaijani
eq Azeri

Notable forms: {az-Arab} Azerbaijani in Arabic script; {az-Cyrl} Azerbaijani in Cyrillic script; {az-Latn} Azerbaijani in Latin script.

{ban} : Balinese
[{bat} : Baltic (Other)]
{bal} : Baluchi
{bm} : Bambara
(Formerly ``bam''.)
[{bai} : Bamileke languages]
{bad} : Banda
[{bnt} : Bantu (Other)]
{bas} : Basa
{ba} : Bashkir
{eu} : Basque
{btk} : Batak (Indonesia)
{bej} : Beja
{be} : Belarusian
eq Belarussian. eq Byelarussian. eq Belorussian. eq Byelorussian. eq White Russian. eq White Ruthenian. NOT Ruthenian!
{bem} : Bemba
{bn} : Bengali
eq Bangla.
[{ber} : Berber (Other)]
{bho} : Bhojpuri
{bh} : Bihari
{bik} : Bikol
{bin} : Bini
{bi} : Bislama
eq Bichelamar.
{bs} : Bosnian
{bra} : Braj
{br} : Breton
{bug} : Buginese
{bg} : Bulgarian
{i-bnn} : Bunun
{bua} : Buriat
{my} : Burmese
{cad} : Caddo
{car} : Carib
{ca} : Catalan
eq Catalan. eq Catalonian.
[{cau} : Caucasian (Other)]
{ceb} : Cebuano
[{cel} : Celtic (Other)]
Notable forms: {cel-gaulish} Gaulish (Historical)
[{cai} : Central American Indian (Other)]
{chg} : Chagatai
[{cmc} : Chamic languages]
{ch} : Chamorro
{ce} : Chechen
{chr} : Cherokee
eq Tsalagi
{chy} : Cheyenne
{chb} : Chibcha
(Historical) NOT Chibchan (which is a language family).
{ny} : Chichewa
eq Nyanja. eq Chinyanja.
{zh} : Chinese
Many forms are mutually un-intelligible in spoken media. Notable forms: {zh-Hans} Chinese, in simplified script; {zh-Hant} Chinese, in traditional script; {zh-tw} Taiwan Chinese; {zh-cn} PRC Chinese; {zh-sg} Singapore Chinese; {zh-mo} Macau Chinese; {zh-hk} Hong Kong Chinese; {zh-guoyu} Mandarin [Putonghua/Guoyu]; {zh-hakka} Hakka [formerly ``i-hakka'']; {zh-min} Hokkien; {zh-min-nan} Southern Hokkien; {zh-wuu} Shanghaiese; {zh-xiang} Hunanese; {zh-gan} Gan; {zh-yue} Cantonese.
{chn} : Chinook Jargon
eq Chinook Wawa.
{chp} : Chipewyan
{cho} : Choctaw
{cu} : Church Slavic
eq Old Church Slavonic.
{chk} : Chuukese
eq Trukese. eq Chuuk. eq Truk. eq Ruk.
{cv} : Chuvash
{cop} : Coptic
{kw} : Cornish
{co} : Corsican
eq Corse.
{cr} : Cree
NOT Creek! (Formerly ``cre''.)
{mus} : Creek
NOT Cree!
[{cpe} : English-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
[{cpf} : French-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
[{cpp} : Portuguese-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
[{crp} : Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
{hr} : Croatian
eq Croat.
[{cus} : Cushitic (Other)]
{cs} : Czech
{dak} : Dakota
eq Nakota. eq Latoka.
{da} : Danish
{dar} : Dargwa
{day} : Dayak
{i-default} : Default (Fallthru) Language
Defined in RFC 2277, this is for tagging text (which must include English text, and might/should include text in other appropriate languages) that is emitted in a context where language-negotiation wasn't possible --- in SMTP mail failure messages, for example.
{del} : Delaware
{din} : Dinka
{dv} : Divehi
eq Maldivian. (Formerly ``div''.)
{doi} : Dogri
NOT Dogrib!
{dgr} : Dogrib
NOT Dogri!
[{dra} : Dravidian (Other)]
{dua} : Duala
{nl} : Dutch
eq Netherlander. Notable forms: {nl-nl} Netherlands Dutch; {nl-be} Belgian Dutch.
{dum} : Middle Dutch (ca.1050-1350)
{dyu} : Dyula
{dz} : Dzongkha
{efi} : Efik
{egy} : Ancient Egyptian
{eka} : Ekajuk
{elx} : Elamite
{en} : English
Notable forms: {en-au} Australian English; {en-bz} Belize English; {en-ca} Canadian English; {en-gb} UK English; {en-ie} Irish English; {en-jm} Jamaican English; {en-nz} New Zealand English; {en-ph} Philippine English; {en-tt} Trinidad English; {en-us} US English; {en-za} South African English; {en-zw} Zimbabwe English.
{enm} : Old English (1100-1500)
{ang} : Old English (ca.450-1100)
eq Anglo-Saxon. (Historical)
{i-enochian} : Enochian (Artificial)
{myv} : Erzya
{eo} : Esperanto
{et} : Estonian
{ee} : Ewe
(Formerly ``ewe''.)
{ewo} : Ewondo
{fan} : Fang
{fat} : Fanti
{fo} : Faroese
{fj} : Fijian
{fi} : Finnish
[{fiu} : Finno-Ugrian (Other)]
eq Finno-Ugric. NOT Ugaritic!
{fon} : Fon
{fr} : French
Notable forms: {fr-fr} France French; {fr-be} Belgian French; {fr-ca} Canadian French; {fr-ch} Swiss French; {fr-lu} Luxembourg French; {fr-mc} Monaco French.
{frm} : Middle French (ca.1400-1600)
{fro} : Old French (842-ca.1400)
{fy} : Frisian
{fur} : Friulian
{ff} : Fulah
(Formerly ``ful''.)
{gaa} : Ga
{gd} : Scots Gaelic
NOT Scots!
{gl} : Gallegan
eq Galician
{lg} : Ganda
(Formerly ``lug''.)
{gay} : Gayo
{gba} : Gbaya
{gez} : Geez
eq Ge'ez
{ka} : Georgian
{de} : German
Notable forms: {de-at} Austrian German; {de-be} Belgian German; {de-ch} Swiss German; {de-de} Germany German; {de-li} Liechtenstein German; {de-lu} Luxembourg German.
{gmh} : Middle High German (ca.1050-1500)
{goh} : Old High German (ca.750-1050)
[{gem} : Germanic (Other)]
{gil} : Gilbertese
{gon} : Gondi
{gor} : Gorontalo
{got} : Gothic
{grb} : Grebo
{grc} : Ancient Greek
(Historical) (Until 15th century or so.)
{el} : Modern Greek
(Since 15th century or so.)
{gn} : Guarani
{gu} : Gujarati
{gwi} : Gwich'in
eq Gwichin
{hai} : Haida
{ht} : Haitian
eq Haitian Creole
{ha} : Hausa
{haw} : Hawaiian
{he} : Hebrew
(Formerly ``iw''.)
{hz} : Herero
{hil} : Hiligaynon
{him} : Himachali
{hi} : Hindi
{ho} : Hiri Motu
{hit} : Hittite
{hmn} : Hmong
{hu} : Hungarian
{hup} : Hupa
{iba} : Iban
{is} : Icelandic
{io} : Ido
{ig} : Igbo
(Formerly ``ibo''.)
{ijo} : Ijo
{ilo} : Iloko
[{inc} : Indic (Other)]
[{ine} : Indo-European (Other)]
{id} : Indonesian
(Formerly ``in''.)
{inh} : Ingush
{ia} : Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association)
(Artificial) NOT Interlingue!
{ie} : Interlingue
(Artificial) NOT Interlingua!
{iu} : Inuktitut
A subform of ``Eskimo''.
{ik} : Inupiaq
A subform of ``Eskimo''.
[{ira} : Iranian (Other)]
{ga} : Irish
{mga} : Middle Irish (900-1200)
{sga} : Old Irish (to 900)
[{iro} : Iroquoian languages]
{it} : Italian
Notable forms: {it-it} Italy Italian; {it-ch} Swiss Italian.
{ja} : Japanese
(NOT ``jp''!)
{jv} : Javanese
(Formerly ``jw'' because of a typo.)
{jrb} : Judeo-Arabic
{jpr} : Judeo-Persian
{kbd} : Kabardian
{kab} : Kabyle
{kac} : Kachin
{kl} : Kalaallisut
eq Greenlandic ``Eskimo''
{xal} : Kalmyk
{kam} : Kamba
{kn} : Kannada
eq Kanarese. NOT Canadian!
{kr} : Kanuri
(Formerly ``kau''.)
{krc} : Karachay-Balkar
{kaa} : Kara-Kalpak
{kar} : Karen
{ks} : Kashmiri
{csb} : Kashubian
eq Kashub
{kaw} : Kawi
{kk} : Kazakh
{kha} : Khasi
{km} : Khmer
eq Cambodian. eq Kampuchean.
[{khi} : Khoisan (Other)]
{kho} : Khotanese
{ki} : Kikuyu
eq Gikuyu.
{kmb} : Kimbundu
{rw} : Kinyarwanda
{ky} : Kirghiz
{i-klingon} : Klingon
{kv} : Komi
{kg} : Kongo
(Formerly ``kon''.)
{kok} : Konkani
{ko} : Korean
{kos} : Kosraean
{kpe} : Kpelle
{kro} : Kru
{kj} : Kuanyama
{kum} : Kumyk
{ku} : Kurdish
{kru} : Kurukh
{kut} : Kutenai
{lad} : Ladino
eq Judeo-Spanish. NOT Ladin (a minority language in Italy).
{lah} : Lahnda
NOT Lamba!
{lam} : Lamba
NOT Lahnda!
{lo} : Lao
eq Laotian.
{la} : Latin
(Historical) NOT Ladin! NOT Ladino!
{lv} : Latvian
eq Lettish.
{lb} : Letzeburgesch
eq Luxemburgian, eq Luxemburger. (Formerly ``i-lux''.)
{lez} : Lezghian
{li} : Limburgish
eq Limburger, eq Limburgan. NOT Letzeburgesch!
{ln} : Lingala
{lt} : Lithuanian
{nds} : Low German
eq Low Saxon. eq Low German. eq Low Saxon.
{art-lojban} : Lojban (Artificial)
{loz} : Lozi
{lu} : Luba-Katanga
(Formerly ``lub''.)
{lua} : Luba-Lulua
{lui} : Luiseno
eq Luisen~o.
{lun} : Lunda
{luo} : Luo (Kenya and Tanzania)
{lus} : Lushai
{mk} : Macedonian
eq the modern Slavic language spoken in what was Yugoslavia. NOT the form of Greek spoken in Greek Macedonia!
{mad} : Madurese
{mag} : Magahi
{mai} : Maithili
{mak} : Makasar
{mg} : Malagasy
{ms} : Malay
NOT Malayalam!
{ml} : Malayalam
NOT Malay!
{mt} : Maltese
{mnc} : Manchu
{mdr} : Mandar
NOT Mandarin!
{man} : Mandingo
{mni} : Manipuri
eq Meithei.
[{mno} : Manobo languages]
{gv} : Manx
{mi} : Maori
NOT Mari!
{mr} : Marathi
{chm} : Mari
NOT Maori!
{mh} : Marshall
eq Marshallese.
{mwr} : Marwari
{mas} : Masai
[{myn} : Mayan languages]
{men} : Mende
{mic} : Micmac
{min} : Minangkabau
{i-mingo} : Mingo
eq the Irquoian language West Virginia Seneca. NOT New York Seneca!
[{mis} : Miscellaneous languages]
Don't use this.
{moh} : Mohawk
{mdf} : Moksha
{mo} : Moldavian
eq Moldovan.
[{mkh} : Mon-Khmer (Other)]
{lol} : Mongo
{mn} : Mongolian
eq Mongol.
{mos} : Mossi
[{mul} : Multiple languages]
Not for normal use.
[{mun} : Munda languages]
{nah} : Nahuatl
{nap} : Neapolitan
{na} : Nauru
{nv} : Navajo
eq Navaho. (Formerly ``i-navajo''.)
{nd} : North Ndebele
{nr} : South Ndebele
{ng} : Ndonga
{ne} : Nepali
eq Nepalese. Notable forms: {ne-np} Nepal Nepali; {ne-in} India Nepali.
{new} : Newari
{nia} : Nias
[{nic} : Niger-Kordofanian (Other)]
[{ssa} : Nilo-Saharan (Other)]
{niu} : Niuean
{nog} : Nogai
{non} : Old Norse
[{nai} : North American Indian]
Do not use this.
{no} : Norwegian
Note the two following forms:
{nb} : Norwegian Bokmal
eq Bokma┬░l, (A form of Norwegian.) (Formerly ``no-bok''.)
{nn} : Norwegian Nynorsk
(A form of Norwegian.) (Formerly ``no-nyn''.)
[{nub} : Nubian languages]
{nym} : Nyamwezi
{nyn} : Nyankole
{nyo} : Nyoro
{nzi} : Nzima
{oc} : Occitan (post 1500)
eq Provencal, eq Provencal
{oj} : Ojibwa
eq Ojibwe. (Formerly ``oji''.)
{or} : Oriya
{om} : Oromo
{osa} : Osage
{os} : Ossetian; Ossetic
[{oto} : Otomian languages]
Group of languages collectively called ``Otomi''.
{pal} : Pahlavi
eq Pahlevi
{i-pwn} : Paiwan
eq Pariwan
{pau} : Palauan
{pi} : Pali
{pam} : Pampanga
{pag} : Pangasinan
{pa} : Panjabi
eq Punjabi
{pap} : Papiamento
eq Papiamentu.
[{paa} : Papuan (Other)]
{fa} : Persian
eq Farsi. eq Iranian.
{peo} : Old Persian (ca.600-400 B.C.)
[{phi} : Philippine (Other)]
{phn} : Phoenician
{pon} : Pohnpeian
NOT Pompeiian!
{pl} : Polish
{pt} : Portuguese
eq Portugese. Notable forms: {pt-pt} Portugal Portuguese; {pt-br} Brazilian Portuguese.
[{pra} : Prakrit languages]
{pro} : Old Provencal (to 1500)
eq Old Provencal. (Historical.)
{ps} : Pushto
eq Pashto. eq Pushtu.
{qu} : Quechua
eq Quecha.
{rm} : Raeto-Romance
eq Romansh.
{raj} : Rajasthani
{rap} : Rapanui
{rar} : Rarotongan
[{qaa - qtz} : Reserved for local use.]
[{roa} : Romance (Other)]
NOT Romanian! NOT Romany! NOT Romansh!
{ro} : Romanian
eq Rumanian. NOT Romany!
{rom} : Romany
eq Rom. NOT Romanian!
{rn} : Rundi
{ru} : Russian
NOT White Russian! NOT Rusyn!
[{sal} : Salishan languages]
Large language group.
{sam} : Samaritan Aramaic
NOT Aramaic!
{se} : Northern Sami
eq Lappish. eq Lapp. eq (Northern) Saami.
{sma} : Southern Sami
{smn} : Inari Sami
{smj} : Lule Sami
{sms} : Skolt Sami
[{smi} : Sami languages (Other)]
{sm} : Samoan
{sad} : Sandawe
{sg} : Sango
{sa} : Sanskrit
{sat} : Santali
{sc} : Sardinian
eq Sard.
{sas} : Sasak
{sco} : Scots
NOT Scots Gaelic!
{sel} : Selkup
[{sem} : Semitic (Other)]
{sr} : Serbian
eq Serb. NOT Sorbian.

Notable forms: {sr-Cyrl} : Serbian in Cyrillic script; {sr-Latn} : Serbian in Latin script.

{srr} : Serer
{shn} : Shan
{sn} : Shona
{sid} : Sidamo
{sgn-...} : Sign Languages
Always use with a subtag. Notable forms: {sgn-gb} British Sign Language (BSL); {sgn-ie} Irish Sign Language (ESL); {sgn-ni} Nicaraguan Sign Language (ISN); {sgn-us} American Sign Language (ASL).

(And so on with other country codes as the subtag.)

{bla} : Siksika
eq Blackfoot. eq Pikanii.
{sd} : Sindhi
{si} : Sinhalese
eq Sinhala.
[{sit} : Sino-Tibetan (Other)]
[{sio} : Siouan languages]
{den} : Slave (Athapascan)
(``Slavey'' is a subform.)
[{sla} : Slavic (Other)]
{sk} : Slovak
eq Slovakian.
{sl} : Slovenian
eq Slovene.
{sog} : Sogdian
{so} : Somali
{son} : Songhai
{snk} : Soninke
{wen} : Sorbian languages
eq Wendish. eq Sorb. eq Lusatian. eq Wend. NOT Venda! NOT Serbian!
{nso} : Northern Sotho
{st} : Southern Sotho
eq Sutu. eq Sesotho.
[{sai} : South American Indian (Other)]
{es} : Spanish
Notable forms: {es-ar} Argentine Spanish; {es-bo} Bolivian Spanish; {es-cl} Chilean Spanish; {es-co} Colombian Spanish; {es-do} Dominican Spanish; {es-ec} Ecuadorian Spanish; {es-es} Spain Spanish; {es-gt} Guatemalan Spanish; {es-hn} Honduran Spanish; {es-mx} Mexican Spanish; {es-pa} Panamanian Spanish; {es-pe} Peruvian Spanish; {es-pr} Puerto Rican Spanish; {es-py} Paraguay Spanish; {es-sv} Salvadoran Spanish; {es-us} US Spanish; {es-uy} Uruguayan Spanish; {es-ve} Venezuelan Spanish.
{suk} : Sukuma
{sux} : Sumerian
{su} : Sundanese
{sus} : Susu
{sw} : Swahili
eq Kiswahili
{ss} : Swati
{sv} : Swedish
Notable forms: {sv-se} Sweden Swedish; {sv-fi} Finland Swedish.
{syr} : Syriac
{tl} : Tagalog
{ty} : Tahitian
[{tai} : Tai (Other)]
NOT Thai!
{tg} : Tajik
{tmh} : Tamashek
{ta} : Tamil
{i-tao} : Tao
eq Yami.
{tt} : Tatar
{i-tay} : Tayal
eq Atayal. eq Atayan.
{te} : Telugu
{ter} : Tereno
{tet} : Tetum
{th} : Thai
NOT Tai!
{bo} : Tibetan
{tig} : Tigre
{ti} : Tigrinya
{tem} : Timne
eq Themne. eq Timene.
{tiv} : Tiv
{tli} : Tlingit
{tpi} : Tok Pisin
{tkl} : Tokelau
{tog} : Tonga (Nyasa)
NOT Tsonga!
{to} : Tonga (Tonga Islands)
(Pronounced ``Tong-a'', not ``Tong-ga'')

NOT Tsonga!

{tsi} : Tsimshian
eq Sm'algyax
{ts} : Tsonga
NOT Tonga!
{i-tsu} : Tsou
{tn} : Tswana
Same as Setswana.
{tum} : Tumbuka
[{tup} : Tupi languages]
{tr} : Turkish
(Typically in Roman script)
{ota} : Ottoman Turkish (1500-1928)
(Typically in Arabic script) (Historical)
{crh} : Crimean Turkish
eq Crimean Tatar
{tk} : Turkmen
eq Turkmeni.
{tvl} : Tuvalu
{tyv} : Tuvinian
eq Tuvan. eq Tuvin.
{tw} : Twi
{udm} : Udmurt
{uga} : Ugaritic
NOT Ugric!
{ug} : Uighur
{uk} : Ukrainian
{umb} : Umbundu
{und} : Undetermined
Not a tag for normal use.
{ur} : Urdu
{uz} : Uzbek
eq O.zbek

Notable forms: {uz-Cyrl} Uzbek in Cyrillic script; {uz-Latn} Uzbek in Latin script.

{vai} : Vai
{ve} : Venda
NOT Wendish! NOT Wend! NOT Avestan! (Formerly ``ven''.)
{vi} : Vietnamese
eq Viet.
{vo} : Volapuk
eq Volapu.k. (Artificial)
{vot} : Votic
eq Votian. eq Vod.
[{wak} : Wakashan languages]
{wa} : Walloon
{wal} : Walamo
eq Wolaytta.
{war} : Waray
Presumably the Philippine language Waray-Waray (Samaren~o), not the smaller Philippine language Waray Sorsogon, nor the extinct Australian language Waray.
{was} : Washo
eq Washoe
{cy} : Welsh
{wo} : Wolof
{x-...} : Unregistered (Semi-Private Use)
``x-'' is a prefix for language tags that are not registered with ISO or IANA. Example, x-double-dutch
{xh} : Xhosa
{sah} : Yakut
{yao} : Yao
(The Yao in Malawi?)
{yap} : Yapese
eq Yap
{ii} : Sichuan Yi
{yi} : Yiddish
Formerly ``ji''. Usually in Hebrew script.

Notable forms: {yi-latn} Yiddish in Latin script

{yo} : Yoruba
[{ypk} : Yupik languages]
Several ``Eskimo'' languages.
{znd} : Zande
[{zap} : Zapotec]
(A group of languages.)
{zen} : Zenaga
NOT Zend.
{za} : Zhuang
{zu} : Zulu
{zun} : Zuni
eq Zun~i


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Sean M. Burke, [email protected]