SYNOPSISimg2mercgrd imgfile -Ggrdfile -Rwest/east/south/north[r] -Ttype [ -C ] [ -D[minlat/maxlat] ] [ -Nnavg ] [ -Sscale ] [ -V ] [ -Wmaxlon ] [ -mminutes ]
DESCRIPTIONimg2mercgrd reads an img format file and creates a grid file. The Spherical Mercator projection of the img file is preserved, so that the region -R set by the user is modified slightly; the modified region corresponds to the edges of pixels [or groups of navg pixels]. The grid file header is set so that the x and y axis lengths represent distance from the west and south edges of the image, measured in user default units, with -Jm1 and the adjusted -R. By setting the default ELLIPSOID = Sphere, the user can make overlays with the adjusted -R so that they match. See EXAMPLES below. The adjusted -R is also written in the grdheader remark, so it can be found later. The -Ttype selects all data or only data at constrained pixels, and can be used to create a grid of 1s and 0s indicating constraint locations. The output grid file is pixel registered; it inherits this from the img file.
- An img format file such as the marine gravity or seafloor topography fields estimated from satellite altimeter data by Sandwell and Smith. If the user has set an environment variable $GMT_IMGDIR, then img2mercgrd will try to find imgfile in $GMT_IMGDIR; else it will try to open imgfile directly.
- grdfile is the name of the output grid file.
- west, east, south, and north specify the Region of interest, and you may specify them in decimal degrees or in [+-]dd:mm[:ss.xxx][W|E|S|N] format. Append r if lower left and upper right map coordinates are given instead of w/e/s/n. The two shorthands -Rg and -Rd stand for global domain (0/360 and -180/+180 in longitude respectively, with -90/+90 in latitude). Alternatively, specify the name of an existing grid file and the -R settings (and grid spacing, if applicable) are copied from the grid.
- type handles the encoding of constraint information. type = 0 indicates that no such information is encoded in the img file (used for pre-1995 versions of the gravity data; all more recent files do not support this choice) and gets all data. type > 0 indicates that constraint information is encoded (1995 and later (current) versions of the img files) so that one may produce a grid file as follows: -T1 gets data values at all points, -T2 gets data values at constrained points and NaN at interpolated points; -T3 gets 1 at constrained points and 0 at interpolated points.
- Set the x and y Mercator coordinates relative to projection center (lon = lat = 0) [Default is relative to lower left corner of grid].
- Use the extended latitude range -80.738/+80.738. Alternatively, append minlat/maxlat as the latitude extent of the input img file. [Default is -72.006/72.006].
- Average the values in the input img pixels into navg by navg squares, and create one output pixel for each such square. If used with -T3 it will report an average constraint between 0 and 1. If used with -T2 the output will be average data value or NaN according to whether average constraint is > 0.5. navg must evenly divide into the dimensions of the imgfile in pixels. [Default 1 does no averaging].
- Multiply the img file values by scale before storing in grid file. [Default is 1.0]. (img topo files are stored in (corrected) meters; gravity files in mGal*10; vertical deflection files in microradians*10, vertical gravity gradient files in Eotvos*10. Use -S0.1 for those files.)
- Selects verbose mode, which will send progress reports to stderr [Default runs "silently"]. Particularly recommended here, as it is helpful to see how the coordinates are adjusted.
- Indicate minutes as the width of an input img pixel in minutes of longitude. [Default is 2.0].
- Indicate maxlon as the maximum longitude extent of the input img file. Versions since 1995 have had maxlon = 360.0, while some earlier files had maxlon = 390.0. [Default is 360.0].
EXAMPLESTo extract data in the region -R-40/40/-70/-30 from world_grav.img.7.2, run
img2mercgrd world_grav.img.7.2 -Gmerc_grav.grd -R-40/40/-70/-30 -T1 -V
Note that the -V option tells us that the range was adjusted to
-R-40/40/-70.0004681551/-29.9945810754. We can also use grdinfo to find that the
grid file header shows its region to be -R0/80/0/67.9666667 This is the range of x,y we
will get from a Spherical Mercator projection using -R-40/40/-70.0004681551/-29.9945810754
and -Jm1. Thus, to take ship.lonlatgrav and use it to sample the merc_grav.grd, we
can do this:
gmtset ELLIPSOID Sphere
mapproject -R-40/40/-70.0004681551/-29.9945810754 -Jm1 ship.lonlatgrav | grdtrack -Gmerc_grav.grd | mapproject -R-40/40/-70.0004681551/-29.9945810754 -Jm1 -I > ship.lonlatgravsat
It is recommended to use the above method of projecting and unprojecting the data in such an
application, because then there is only one interpolation step (in grdtrack). If one first
tries to convert the grid file to lon,lat and then sample it, there are two interpolation steps
(in conversion and in sampling).
To make a lon,lat grid from the above grid we can use
grdproject merc_grav.grd -R-40/40/-70.0004681551/-29.9945810754 -Jm1 -I
-F -D2m -Ggrav.grd
In some cases this will not be easy as the -R in the two coordinate systems may not align well.
When this happens, we can also use (in fact, it may be always better to use)
grd2xyz merc_grav.grd | mapproject -R-40/40/-70.0004681551/-29.994581075 -Jm1
-I | surface -R-40/40/-70/70 -I2m -Ggrav.grd
To make a Mercator map of the above region, suppose our .gmtdefaults4 MEASURE_UNIT is inch. Then
since the above merc_grav.grd file is projected with -Jm1 it is 80 inches wide. We can
make a map 8 inches wide by using -Jx0.1 on any map programs applied to this grid (e.g.,
grdcontour, grdimage, grdview), and then for overlays which work in lon,lat (e.g., psxy, pscoast)
we can use the above adjusted -R and -Jm0.1 to get the two systems to match up.
However, we can be smarter than this. Realizing that the input img file had pixels 2.0 minutes
wide (or checking the nx and ny with grdinfo merc_grav.grd) we realize that merc_grav.grd used
the full resolution of the img file and it has 2400 by 2039 pixels, and at 8 inches wide this
is 300 pixels per inch. We decide we don't need that many and we will be satisfied with 100pixels per inch, so we want to average the data into 3 by 3 squares. (If we want a contour plot
we will probably choose to average the data much more (e.g. 6 by 6) to get smooth contours.)
Since 2039 isn't divisible by 3 we will get a different adjusted OPT(R) this time:
img2mercgrd world_grav.img.7.2 -Gmerc_grav_2.grd -R-40/40/-70/-30 -T1 -N3
This time we find the adjusted region is -R-40/40/-70.023256525/-29.9368261101 and the output
is 800 by 601 pixels, a better size for us. Now we can create an artificial illumination file for
this using grdgradient:
grdgradient merc_grav_2.grd -Gillum.grd -A0/270 -Ne0.6
and if we also have a cpt file called "grav.cpt" we can create a color shaded relief map like this:
grdimage merc_grav_2.grd -Iillum.grd -Cgrav.cpt -Jx0.1 -K > map.ps
psbasemap -R-40/40/-70.023256525/-29.9368261101 -Jm0.1 -Ba10 -O >> map.ps
Suppose you want to obtain only the constrained data values from an img file, in lat/lon coordinates. Then run img2mercgrd with the -T2 option, use grd2xyz to dump the values, pipe through grep -v NaN to eliminate NaNs, and pipe through mapproject with the inverse projection as above.