SYNOPSISmaria [options] files...
DESCRIPTIONThis manual page documents briefly the maria command. More complete documentation is available in the GNU Info format; see below.
maria is a program that analyzes models of concurrent systems,
described in its input language that is based on Algebraic System Nets.
The formalism was presented by Ekkart Kindler and Hagen Völzer at
Flexibility in Algebraic Nets.
Algebraic System Nets is a framework that does not define any data types or algebraic operations. The data type system and the operations in Maria are designed with high-level programming and specification languages in mind. Despite that, each Maria model has a finite unfolding.
To ensure interoperability with low-level Petri net tools, Maria translates identifiers in unfolded nets to strings of alpha-numerical characters and underscores. The filter foldname.pl can be used or adapted to improve the readability of the identifiers.
OPTIONSMaria follows the usual GNU command line syntax, with long options starting with two dashes (`-'). A summary of options is included below. For a complete description, see the Info files.
- -a limit, --array-limit=limit
- Limit the size of array index types to limit possible values. A limit of 0 disables the checks.
- -b model, --breadth-first-search=model
- Generate the reachability graph of model using breadth-first search.
- -C directory, --compile=directory
- Generate C code in directory for evaluating expressions and for the low-level routines of the transition instance analysis algorithm. When this option is used, evaluation errors are reported in a slightly different way. The interpreter displays the valuation and expression that caused the first error in a state; the compiled code displays the number of errors. For performance reasons, the generated code does not check for overflow errors when adding items to multi-sets.
- -c, --no-compile
- The opposite of -C. Evaluate all expressions in the built-in interpreter. This is the default behavior.
- -D symbol, --define=symbol
- Define the preprocessor symbol symbol.
- -d model, --depth-first-search=model
- Generate the reachability graph of model using depth-first search.
- -E interval, --edges=interval
- When generating the reachability graph, report the size of the graph after every interval generated edges.
- -e string, --execute=string
- Execute string.
- -g graphfile, --graph=graphfile
- Load a previously generated reachability graph from graphfile.rgh.
- -H h[,f[,t]], --hashes=h[,f[,t]]
- Configure the parameters for probabilistic verification (-P). Allocate t universal hash functions of f elements and corresponding hash tables of h bits each. Both h and f will be rounded up to next suitable values.
- -?, -h, --help
- Print a summary of the command-line options to Maria and exit.
- -I directory, --include=directory
- Append directory to the list of directories searched for include files.
- -i columns, --width=columns
- Set the right margin of the output to columns. The default is 80.
- -j processes, --jobs=processes
- When checking safety properties (options -L, -M and -P), use this many worker processes to speed up the analysis on a multiprocessor computer. See also -k and -Z.
- -k port[/host], --connect=port[/host]
- Distribute safety model checking (options -L, -M and -P) in a TCP/IP network. For the server, only port is specified as a 16-bit unsigned integer, usually between 1024 and 65535. For the worker processes, port/host specifies the port and the address of the server. See also -j.
- -L model, --lossless=model
- Load model and prepare for analyzing it by constructing a set of reachable states in disk files. See also -M, -P, -j and -k.
- -m model, --model=model
- Load model and clear its reachability graph.
- -M model, --md5-compacted=model
- Load model and prepare for analyzing it by constructing an over-approximation of set of reachable states in the main memory. See also -P, -L, -j and -k.
- -N cregexp, --name=cregexp
- Specify the names allowed in context c as the extended regular expression regexp. The context is identified by the first character of the parameter string; the succeeding characters constitute the regular expression that allowed names must match.
- -n cregexp, --no-name=cregexp
Specify the names not allowed in context c as the extended regular
If both -N and and -n are specified for a context c, then the allowing match takes precedence. For instance, to require that all user defined type names be terminated with _t, specify -nt -Nt'_t$'. The quotes in the latter parameter are required to remove the special meaning from $ in the command line shell you are probably using to invoke Maria.
- -P model, --probabilistic=model
- Load model and prepare for analyzing it by constructing a set of reachable states in the main memory by using a technique called bitstate hashing.
- -p command, --property-translator=command
- Specify the command to use for translating property automata. The command should read a formula from the standard input and write a corresponding automaton description to the standard output. The translator lbt is compatible with this option.
- -q limit, --quantification-limit=limit
- Prevent quantification (multi-set sum) of types having more than limit possible values. A limit of 0 disables the checks.
- -U symbol, --undefine=symbol
- Undefine the preprocessor symbol symbol.
- -u [a][f[outfile]], --unfold=[a][f[outfile]]
- Unfold the net using algorithm a and write it in format f to outfile. If outfile is not specified, dump the unfolded net to the standard output. Possible formats are m (Maria (human-readable), default), l (LoLA), p (PEP), and r (PROD). There are two algorithms: traditional (default) and reduced by constructing a coverable marking (M).
- -V, --version
- Print the version number of Maria and exit.
- -v, --verbose
- Display verbose information on different stages of the analysis.
- -W, --warnings
- Enable warnings about suspicious net constructs. This is the default behavior.
- -w, --no-warnings
- The opposite of -W. Disable all warnings.
- -x numberbase, --radix=numberbase
- Specify the number base for diagnostic output. Allowed values for numberbase are oct, octal, 8, hex, hexadecimal, 16, dec, decimal and 10. The default is to use decimal numbers.
- -Y, --compress-hidden
- Reduce the set of reachable states by not storing the successor states of transitions instances for which a hide condition holds. The hidden successors are stored to a separate state set. This option may save memory (-L or -m) or reduce the probability that states are omitted (-M or -P), and it may improve the efficiency of parallel analysis (-j or -k), but it may also considerably increase the processor time requirement. The option also works with liveness model checking, but there is no guarantee that the truth values of liveness properties remain unchanged. This option can be combined with -Z.
- -y, --no-compress-hidden
- The opposite of -Y. This is the default behavior.
- -Z, --compress-paths
- Reduce the set of reachable states by not storing intermediate states that have at most one successor. This option may save memory (-L or -m) or reduce the probability that states are omitted (-M or -P), and it may improve the efficiency of parallel analysis (-j or -k), but it may also considerably increase the processor time requirement. The option also works with liveness model checking, but there is no guarantee that the truth values of liveness properties remain unchanged. This option can be combined with -Y.
- -z, --no-compress-paths
- The opposite of -Z. This is the default behavior.
- The run-time library for the compilation option
Script for demangling identifiers in unfolded net output
The programs are documented fully by Maria, available via the Info system.
AUTHORThis manual page was written by Marko Mäkelä <[email protected]>. Maria was written by Marko Mäkelä, and some algorithms were designed by Kimmo Varpaaniemi, Timo Latvala and Emil Falck. Please see the copyright file in /usr/share/doc/maria for details.