my $path = Math::PlanePath::KochCurve->new;
my ($x, $y) = $path->n_to_xy (123);
DESCRIPTIONThis is an integer version of the self-similar Koch curve,
- Helge von Koch, ``Une Méthode Géométrique Élémentaire pour l'Étude de Certaines Questions de la Théorie des Courbes Planes'', Acta Arithmetica, volume 30, 1906, pages 145-174. <http://archive.org/details/actamathematica11lefgoog>
It goes along the X axis and makes triangular excursions upwards.
8 3 / \ 6---- 7 9----10 18-... 2 \ / \ 2 5 11 14 17 1 / \ / \ / \ / 0----1 3---- 4 12----13 15----16 <- Y=0 ^ X=0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
The replicating shape is the initial N=0 to N=4,
* / \ *---* *---*
which is rotated and repeated 3 times in the same pattern to give sections N=4 to N=8, N=8 to N=12, and N=12 to N=16. Then that N=0 to N=16 is itself replicated three times at the angles of the base pattern, and so on infinitely.
The X,Y coordinates are arranged on a square grid using every second point, per ``Triangular Lattice'' in Math::PlanePath. The result is flattened triangular segments with diagonals at a 45 degree angle.
Level RangesEach replication adds 3 copies of the existing points and is thus 4 times bigger, so if N=0 to N=4 is reckoned as level 1 then a given replication level goes from
Nstart = 0 Nlevel = 4^level (inclusive)
Each replication is 3 times the width. The initial N=0 to N=4 figure is 6 wide and in general a level runs from
Xstart = 0 Xlevel = 2*3^level at N=Nlevel
The highest Y is 3 times greater at each level similarly. The peak is at the midpoint of each level,
Npeak = (4^level)/2 Ypeak = 3^level Xpeak = 3^level
It can be seen that the N=6 point backtracks horizontally to the same X as the start of its section N=4 to N=8. This happens in the further replications too and is the maximum extent of the backtracking.
The Nlevel is multiplied by 4 to get the end of the next higher level. The same 4*N can be applied to all points N=0 to N=Nlevel to get the same shape but a factor of 3 bigger X,Y coordinates. The in-between points 4*N+1, 4*N+2 and 4*N+3 are then new finer structure in the higher level.
FractalKoch conceived the curve as having a fixed length and infinitely fine structure, making it continuous everywhere but differentiable nowhere. The code here can be pressed into use for that sort of construction for a given level of granularity by scaling
which makes it a fixed 2 wide by 1 high. Or for unit-side equilateral triangles then apply further factors 1/2 and sqrt(3)/2, as noted in ``Triangular Lattice'' in Math::PlanePath.
(X/2) / 3^level (Y*sqrt(3)/2) / 3^level
AreaThe area under the curve to a given level can be calculated from its self-similar nature. The curve at level+1 is 3 times wider and higher and adds a triangle of unit area onto each line segment. So reckoning the line segment N=0 to N=1 as level=0 (which is area=0),
area[level] = 9*area[level-1] + 4^(level-1) = 4^(level-1) + 9*4^(level-2) + ... + 9^(level-1)*4^0 9^level - 4^level = ----------------- 5 = 0, 1, 13, 133, 1261, 11605, 105469, ... (A016153)
The sides are 6 different angles. The triangles added on the sides are always the same shape either pointing up or down. Base width=2 and height=1 gives area=1.
* *-----* ^ / \ \ / | height=1 / \ \ / | *-----* * v triangle area = 2*1/2 = 1 <-----> width=2
If the Y coordinates are stretched to make equilateral triangles then the number of triangles is not changed and so the area increases by a factor of the area of the equilateral triangle, sqrt(3)/4.
FUNCTIONSSee ``FUNCTIONS'' in Math::PlanePath for behaviour common to all path classes.
- "$path = Math::PlanePath::KochCurve->new ()"
- Create and return a new path object.
- "($x,$y) = $path->n_to_xy ($n)"
Return the X,Y coordinates of point number $n on the path. Points begin
at 0 and if "$n < 0" then the return is an empty list.
Fractional positions give an X,Y position along a straight line between the integer positions.
- "($n_lo, $n_hi) = $path->rect_to_n_range ($x1,$y1, $x2,$y2)"
- The returned range is exact, meaning $n_lo and $n_hi are the smallest and biggest in the rectangle.
- "$n = $path->n_start()"
- Return 0, the first N in the path.
- "($n_lo, $n_hi) = $path->level_to_n_range($level)"
- Return "(0, 4**$level)".
N to TurnThe curve always turns either +60 degrees or -120 degrees, it never goes straight ahead. In the base 4 representation of N the lowest non-zero digit gives the turn. The first turn is at N=1 so there's always a non-zero digit in N.
low digit base 4 turn --------- ------------ 1 +60 degrees (left) 2 -120 degrees (right) 3 +60 degrees (left)
For example N=8 is 20 base 4, so lowest nonzero ``2'' means turn -120 degrees for the next segment.
If the least significant digit is non-zero then it determines the turn, making the base N=0 to N=4 shape. If the least significant is zero then the next level up is in control, eg. N=0,4,8,12,16, making a turn according to the base shape again at that higher level. The first and last segments of the base shape are ``straight'' so there's no extra adjustment to apply in those higher digits.
This base 4 digit rule is equivalent to counting low 0-bits. A low base-4 digit 1 or 3 is an even number of low 0-bits and a low digit 2 is an odd number of low 0-bits.
count low 0-bits turn ---------------- ------------ even +60 degrees (left) odd -120 degrees (right)
For example N=8 in binary ``1000'' has 3 low 0-bits and 3 is odd so turn -120 degrees (right).
See ``Turn'' in Math::PlanePath::GrayCode for a similar turn sequence arising from binary Gray code.
N to Next TurnThe turn at N+1, ie the next turn, can be found from the base-4 digits by considering how the digits of N change when 1 is added, and the low-digit turn calculation is applied on those changed digits.
Adding 1 means low digit 0, 1 or 2 will become non-zero. Any low 3s wrap around to become low 0s. So the turn at N+1 can be found from the digits of N by seeking the lowest non-3
lowest non-3 turn digit of N at N+1 ------------ ------------ 0 +60 degrees (left) 1 -120 degrees (right) 2 +60 degrees (left)
N to DirectionThe total turn at a given N can be found by counting digits 1 and 2 in base 4.
direction = ((count of 1-digits in base 4) - (count of 2-digits in base 4)) * 60 degrees
For example N=11 is ``23'' in base 4, so 60*(0-1) = -60 degrees.
In this formula the count of 1s and 2s can go past 360 degrees, representing a spiralling around which occurs at progressively higher replication levels. The direction can be taken mod 360 degrees, or the count mod 6, for a direction 0 to 5 if desired.
N to abs(dX),abs(dY)The direction expressed as abs(dX) and abs(dY) can be calculated simply from N modulo 3. abs(dX) is a repeating pattern 2,1,1 and abs(dY) repeating 0,1,1.
N mod 3 abs(dX),abs(dY) ------- --------------- 0 2,0 horizontal, East or West 1 1,1 slope North-East or South-West 2 1,1 slope North-West or South-East
This works because the direction calculation above corresponds to N mod 3. Each N digit in base 4 becomes
N digit base 4 direction add ------- ------------- 0 0 1 1 2 -1 3 0
Notice that direction == Ndigit mod 3. Then because 4==1 mod 3 the power-of-4 for each digit reduces down to 1,
N = 4^k * digit_k + ... 4^0 * digit_0 N mod 3 = 1 * digit_k + ... 1 * digit_0 = digit_k + ... digit_0 same as direction = digit_k + ... + digit_0 taken mod 3
Rectangle to N Range --- LevelAn easy over-estimate of the N values in a rectangle can be had from the Xlevel formula above. If Xlevel>rectangleX then Nlevel is past the rectangle extent.
X = 2*3^level
floorlevel = floor log_base_3(X/2) Nhi = 4^(floorlevel+1) - 1
For example a rectangle extending to X=13 has floorlevel = floor(log3(13/2))=1 and so Nhi=4^(1+1)-1=15.
The rounding-down of the log3 ensures a point such as X=18 which is the first in the next Nlevel will give that next level. So floorlevel=log3(18/2)=2 (exactly) and Nhi=4^(2+1)-1=63.
The worst case for this over-estimate is when rectangleX==Xlevel, ie. the rectangle is just into the next level. In that case Nhi is nearly a factor 4 bigger than it needs to be.
Rectangle to N Range --- ExactThe exact Nlo and Nhi in a rectangle can be found by searching along the curve. For Nlo search forward from the origin N=0. For Nhi search backward from the Nlevel over-estimate described above.
At a given digit position in the prospective N the sub-part of the curve comprising the lower digits has a certain triangular extent. If it's outside the target rectangle then step to the next digit value, and to the next of the digit above when past digit=3 (or below digit=0 when searching backwards).
There's six possible orientations for the curve sub-part. In the following pictures ``o'' is the start and the surrounding lines show the triangular extent. There's just four curve parts shown in each, but these triangles bound a sub-curve of any level.
rot=0 -+- +-----------------+ -- -- - .-+-* *-+-o - -- * -- -- \ / -- -- / \ -- -- * -- - o-+-* *-+-. - -- -- +-----------------+ rot=3 -+- rot=1 +---------+ rot=4 /+ | . / / | | / / / o| |*-+-* / / / | | \ / / * | | * / / \ | | / / / *-+-*| |o / / / | | / / . | +/ +---------+ +\ rot=2 +---------+ | \ \ o | |. \ \ \ | | \ \ \ *-+-*| | * \ \ / | | / \ \ * | |*-+-* \ \ \ | | \ \ \ .| | o \ rot=5 \ | +---------+ \+
The ``.'' is the start of the next sub-curve. It belongs to the next digit value and so can be excluded. For rot=0 and rot=3 this means simply shortening the X range permitted. For rot=1 and rot=4 similarly the Y range. For rot=2 and rot=5 it would require a separate test.
Tight sub-part extent checking reduces the sub-parts which are examined, but it works perfectly well with a looser check, such as a square box for the sub-curve extents. Doing that might be easier if the target region is not a rectangle but instead some trickier shape.
OEISThe Koch curve is in Sloane's Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences in various forms,
- <http://oeis.org/A035263> (etc)
A177702 abs(dX) from N=1 onwards, being 1,1,2 repeating A011655 abs(dY), being 0,1,1 repeating A035263 turn 1=left,0=right, by morphism A096268 turn 0=left,1=right, by morphism A056832 turn 1=left,2=right, by replicate and flip last A029883 turn +/-1=left,0=right, Thue-Morse first differences A089045 turn +/-1=left,0=right, by +/- something A003159 N positions of left turns, ending even number 0 bits A036554 N positions of right turns, ending odd number 0 bits A020988 number of left turns N=0 to N < 4^k, being 2*(4^k-1)/3 A002450 number of right turns N=0 to N < 4^k, being (4^k-1)/3 A016153 area under the curve, (9^n-4^n)/5
For reference, A217586 is not quite the same as A096268 right turn. A217586 differs by a 0<->1 flip at N=2^k due to different initial a(1)=1.
LICENSECopyright 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 Kevin Ryde
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