Mojolicious(3) Real-time web framework


# Application
package MyApp;
use Mojo::Base 'Mojolicious';
# Route
sub startup {
my $self = shift;
# Controller
package MyApp::Controller::Foo;
use Mojo::Base 'Mojolicious::Controller';
# Action
sub hello {
my $self = shift;
$self->render(text => 'Hello World!');


Take a look at our excellent documentation in Mojolicious::Guides!


Mojolicious will emit the following hooks in the listed order.


Emitted right after the transaction is built and before the HTTP request gets parsed.

  $app->hook(after_build_tx => sub {
    my ($tx, $app) = @_;

This is a very powerful hook and should not be used lightly, it makes some rather advanced features such as upload progress bars possible. Note that this hook will not work for embedded applications, because only the host application gets to build transactions. (Passed the transaction and application object)


Emitted right after a new request has been received and wraps around the whole dispatch process, so you have to manually forward to the next hook if you want to continue the chain. Default exception handling with ``reply->exception'' in Mojolicious::Plugin::DefaultHelpers is the first hook in the chain and a call to ``dispatch'' the last, yours will be in between.

  $app->hook(around_dispatch => sub {
    my ($next, $c) = @_;

This is a very powerful hook and should not be used lightly, it allows you to, for example, customize application-wide exception handling, consider it the sledgehammer in your toolbox. (Passed a callback leading to the next hook and the default controller object)


Emitted right before the static file server and router start their work.

  $app->hook(before_dispatch => sub {
    my $c = shift;

Very useful for rewriting incoming requests and other preprocessing tasks. (Passed the default controller object)


Emitted after a static file response has been generated by the static file server.

  $app->hook(after_static => sub {
    my $c = shift;

Mostly used for post-processing static file responses. (Passed the default controller object)


Emitted after the static file server determined if a static file should be served and before the router starts its work.

  $app->hook(before_routes => sub {
    my $c = shift;

Mostly used for custom dispatchers and collecting metrics. (Passed the default controller object)


Emitted right before an action gets executed and wraps around it, so you have to manually forward to the next hook if you want to continue the chain. Default action dispatching is the last hook in the chain, yours will run before it.

  $app->hook(around_action => sub {
    my ($next, $c, $action, $last) = @_;
    return $next->();

This is a very powerful hook and should not be used lightly, it allows you for example to pass additional arguments to actions or handle return values differently. (Passed a callback leading to the next hook, the current controller object, the action callback and a flag indicating if this action is an endpoint)


Emitted before content is generated by the renderer. Note that this hook can trigger out of order due to its dynamic nature, and with embedded applications will only work for the application that is rendering.

  $app->hook(before_render => sub {
    my ($c, $args) = @_;

Mostly used for pre-processing arguments passed to the renderer. (Passed the current controller object and the render arguments)


Emitted after content has been generated by the renderer that will be assigned to the response. Note that this hook can trigger out of order due to its dynamic nature, and with embedded applications will only work for the application that is rendering.

  $app->hook(after_render => sub {
    my ($c, $output, $format) = @_;

Mostly used for post-processing dynamically generated content. (Passed the current controller object, a reference to the content and the format)


Emitted in reverse order after a response has been generated. Note that this hook can trigger out of order due to its dynamic nature, and with embedded applications will only work for the application that is generating the response.

  $app->hook(after_dispatch => sub {
    my $c = shift;

Useful for rewriting outgoing responses and other post-processing tasks. (Passed the current controller object)


Mojolicious inherits all attributes from Mojo and implements the following new ones.


  my $commands = $app->commands;
  $app         = $app->commands(Mojolicious::Commands->new);

Command line interface for your application, defaults to a Mojolicious::Commands object.

  # Add another namespace to load commands from
  push @{$app->commands->namespaces}, 'MyApp::Command';


  my $class = $app->controller_class;
  $app      = $app->controller_class('Mojolicious::Controller');

Class to be used for the default controller, defaults to Mojolicious::Controller. Note that this class needs to have already been loaded before the first request arrives.


  my $mode = $app->mode;
  $app     = $app->mode('production');

The operating mode for your application, defaults to a value from the "MOJO_MODE" and "PLACK_ENV" environment variables or "development". Right before calling ``startup'', Mojolicious will pick up the current mode, name the log file after it and raise the log level from "debug" to "info" if it has a value other than "development".


  my $moniker = $app->moniker;
  $app        = $app->moniker('foo_bar');

Moniker of this application, often used as default filename for configuration files and the like, defaults to decamelizing the application class with ``decamelize'' in Mojo::Util.


  my $plugins = $app->plugins;
  $app        = $app->plugins(Mojolicious::Plugins->new);

The plugin manager, defaults to a Mojolicious::Plugins object. See the ``plugin'' method below if you want to load a plugin.

  # Add another namespace to load plugins from
  push @{$app->plugins->namespaces}, 'MyApp::Plugin';


  my $renderer = $app->renderer;
  $app         = $app->renderer(Mojolicious::Renderer->new);

Used to render content, defaults to a Mojolicious::Renderer object. For more information about how to generate content see Mojolicious::Guides::Rendering.

  # Add another "templates" directory
  push @{$app->renderer->paths}, '/home/sri/templates';
  # Add another "templates" directory with higher precedence
  unshift @{$app->renderer->paths}, '/home/sri/themes/blue/templates';
  # Add another class with templates in DATA section
  push @{$app->renderer->classes}, 'Mojolicious::Plugin::Fun';


  my $routes = $app->routes;
  $app       = $app->routes(Mojolicious::Routes->new);

The router, defaults to a Mojolicious::Routes object. You use this in your startup method to define the url endpoints for your application.

  # Add routes
  my $r = $app->routes;
  $r->get('/foo/bar')->to('test#foo', title => 'Hello Mojo!');
  # Add another namespace to load controllers from
  push @{$app->routes->namespaces}, 'MyApp::MyController';


  my $secrets = $app->secrets;
  $app        = $app->secrets([$bytes]);

Secret passphrases used for signed cookies and the like, defaults to the ``moniker'' of this application, which is not very secure, so you should change it!!! As long as you are using the insecure default there will be debug messages in the log file reminding you to change your passphrase. Only the first passphrase is used to create new signatures, but all of them for verification. So you can increase security without invalidating all your existing signed cookies by rotating passphrases, just add new ones to the front and remove old ones from the back.

  # Rotate passphrases
  $app->secrets(['new_passw0rd', 'old_passw0rd', 'very_old_passw0rd']);


  my $sessions = $app->sessions;
  $app         = $app->sessions(Mojolicious::Sessions->new);

Signed cookie based session manager, defaults to a Mojolicious::Sessions object. You can usually leave this alone, see ``session'' in Mojolicious::Controller for more information about working with session data.

  # Change name of cookie used for all sessions


  my $static = $app->static;
  $app       = $app->static(Mojolicious::Static->new);

For serving static files from your "public" directories, defaults to a Mojolicious::Static object.

  # Add another "public" directory
  push @{$app->static->paths}, '/home/sri/public';
  # Add another "public" directory with higher precedence
  unshift @{$app->static->paths}, '/home/sri/themes/blue/public';
  # Add another class with static files in DATA section
  push @{$app->static->classes}, 'Mojolicious::Plugin::Fun';


  my $types = $app->types;
  $app      = $app->types(Mojolicious::Types->new);

Responsible for connecting file extensions with MIME types, defaults to a Mojolicious::Types object.

  # Add custom MIME type
  $app->types->type(twt => 'text/tweet');


  my $validator = $app->validator;
  $app          = $app->validator(Mojolicious::Validator->new);

Validate values, defaults to a Mojolicious::Validator object.

  # Add validation check
  $app->validator->add_check(foo => sub {
    my ($validation, $name, $value) = @_;
    return $value ne 'foo';
  # Add validation filter
  $app->validator->add_filter(quotemeta => sub {
    my ($validation, $name, $value) = @_;
    return quotemeta $value;


Mojolicious inherits all methods from Mojo and implements the following new ones.


  my $c = $app->build_controller;
  my $c = $app->build_controller(Mojo::Transaction::HTTP->new);
  my $c = $app->build_controller(Mojolicious::Controller->new);

Build default controller object with ``controller_class''.

  # Render template from application
  my $foo = $app->build_controller->render_to_string(template => 'foo');


  my $tx = $app->build_tx;

Build Mojo::Transaction::HTTP object and emit ``after_build_tx'' hook.


  my $hash = $app->defaults;
  my $foo  = $app->defaults('foo');
  $app     = $app->defaults({foo => 'bar', baz => 23});
  $app     = $app->defaults(foo => 'bar', baz => 23);

Default values for ``stash'' in Mojolicious::Controller, assigned for every new request.

  # Remove value
  my $foo = delete $app->defaults->{foo};
  # Assign multiple values at once
  $app->defaults(foo => 'test', bar => 23);



The heart of every Mojolicious application, calls the ``static'' and ``routes'' dispatchers for every request and passes them a Mojolicious::Controller object.



Sets up the default controller and emits the ``around_dispatch'' hook for every request.


  $app->helper(foo => sub {...});

Add or replace a helper that will be available as a method of the controller object and the application object, as well as a function in "ep" templates. For a full list of helpers that are available by default see Mojolicious::Plugin::DefaultHelpers and Mojolicious::Plugin::TagHelpers.

  # Helper
  $app->helper(cache => sub { state $cache = {} });
  # Application
  $app->cache->{foo} = 'bar';
  my $result = $app->cache->{foo};
  # Controller
  $c->cache->{foo} = 'bar';
  my $result = $c->cache->{foo};
  # Template
  % cache->{foo} = 'bar';
  %= cache->{foo}


  $app->hook(after_dispatch => sub {...});

Extend Mojolicious with hooks, which allow code to be shared with all requests indiscriminately, for a full list of available hooks see ``HOOKS''.

  # Dispatchers will not run if there's already a response code defined
  $app->hook(before_dispatch => sub {
    my $c = shift;
    $c->render(text => 'Skipped static file server and router!')
      if $c->req->url->path->to_route =~ /do_not_dispatch/;


  my $app = Mojolicious->new;
  my $app = Mojolicious->new(moniker => 'foo_bar');
  my $app = Mojolicious->new({moniker => 'foo_bar'});

Construct a new Mojolicious application and call ``startup''. Will automatically detect your home directory and set up logging based on your current operating mode. Also sets up the renderer, static file server, a default set of plugins and an ``around_dispatch'' hook with the default exception handling.


  $app->plugin('some_thing', foo => 23);
  $app->plugin('some_thing', {foo => 23});
  $app->plugin('SomeThing', foo => 23);
  $app->plugin('SomeThing', {foo => 23});
  $app->plugin('MyApp::Plugin::SomeThing', foo => 23);
  $app->plugin('MyApp::Plugin::SomeThing', {foo => 23});

Load a plugin, for a full list of example plugins included in the Mojolicious distribution see ``PLUGINS'' in Mojolicious::Plugins.



Start the command line interface for your application. For a full list of commands that are available by default see ``COMMANDS'' in Mojolicious::Commands. Note that the options "-h"/"--help", "--home" and "-m"/"--mode", which are shared by all commands, will be parsed from @ARGV during compile time.

  # Always start daemon
  $app->start('daemon', '-l', 'http://*:8080');



This is your main hook into the application, it will be called at application startup. Meant to be overloaded in a subclass.

  sub startup {
    my $self = shift;


In addition to the ``ATTRIBUTES'' and ``METHODS'' above you can also call helpers on Mojolicious objects. This includes all helpers from Mojolicious::Plugin::DefaultHelpers and Mojolicious::Plugin::TagHelpers. Note that application helpers are always called with a new default controller object, so they can't depend on or change controller state, which includes request, response and stash.

  # Call helper
  say $app->dumper({foo => 'bar'});
  # Longer version
  say $app->build_controller->helpers->dumper({foo => 'bar'});


The Mojolicious distribution includes a few files with different licenses that have been bundled for internal use.

Mojolicious Artwork

  Copyright (C) 2010-2016, Sebastian Riedel.

Licensed under the CC-SA License, Version 4.0 <>.


  Copyright (C) jQuery Foundation.

Licensed under the MIT License, <>.


  Copyright (C) 2006, 2013 Google Inc..

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 <>.


Every major release of Mojolicious has a code name, these are the ones that have been used in the past.

6.0, "Clinking Beer Mugs" (U+1F37B)

5.0, "Tiger Face" (U+1F42F)

4.0, "Top Hat" (U+1F3A9)

3.0, "Rainbow" (U+1F308)

2.0, "Leaf Fluttering In Wind" (U+1F343)

1.4, "Smiling Face With Sunglasses" (U+1F60E)

1.3, "Tropical Drink" (U+1F379)

1.1, "Smiling Cat Face With Heart-Shaped Eyes" (U+1F63B)

1.0, "Snowflake" (U+2744)


Some of the work on this distribution has been sponsored by The Perl Foundation <>, thank you!


Sebastian Riedel, "[email protected]"


Current members of the core team in alphabetical order:

Abhijit Menon-Sen, "[email protected]"

Glen Hinkle, "[email protected]"

Jan Henning Thorsen, "[email protected]"

Joel Berger, "[email protected]"

Marcus Ramberg, "[email protected]"


In alphabetical order:

Adam Kennedy

Adriano Ferreira

Al Newkirk

Alex Efros

Alex Salimon

Alexey Likhatskiy

Anatoly Sharifulin

Andre Parker

Andre Vieth

Andreas Jaekel

Andreas Koenig

Andrew Fresh

Andrew Nugged

Andrey Khozov

Andrey Kuzmin

Andy Grundman

Aristotle Pagaltzis

Ashley Dev

Ask Bjoern Hansen

Audrey Tang

Ben Tyler

Ben van Staveren

Benjamin Erhart

Bernhard Graf

Breno G. de Oliveira

Brian Duggan

Brian Medley

Burak Gursoy

Ch Lamprecht

Charlie Brady

Chas. J. Owens IV

Christian Hansen


Curt Tilmes

Dan Book

Daniel Kimsey

Danijel Tasov

Danny Thomas

David Davis

David Webb

Diego Kuperman

Dmitriy Shalashov

Dmitry Konstantinov

Dominik Jarmulowicz

Dominique Dumont

Douglas Christopher Wilson

Eugen Konkov

Eugene Toropov

Gisle Aas

Graham Barr

Graham Knop

Henry Tang

Hideki Yamamura

Hiroki Toyokawa

Ian Goodacre

Ilya Chesnokov

James Duncan

Jan Jona Javorsek

Jan Schmidt

Jaroslav Muhin

Jesse Vincent

Johannes Plunien

John Kingsley

Jonathan Yu

Josh Leder

Kazuhiro Shibuya

Kevin Old

Kitamura Akatsuki

Klaus S. Madsen

Lars Balker Rasmussen

Lee Johnson

Leon Brocard

Magnus Holm

Maik Fischer

Mark Fowler

Mark Grimes

Mark Stosberg

Marty Tennison

Matt S Trout

Matthew Lineen

Maksym Komar

Maxim Vuets

Michael Gregorowicz

Michael Harris

Mike Magowan

Mirko Westermeier

Mons Anderson

Moritz Lenz

Neil Watkiss

Nic Sandfield

Nils Diewald

Oleg Zhelo

Olivier Mengue

Pascal Gaudette

Paul Evans

Paul Tomlin

Pavel Shaydo

Pedro Melo

Peter Edwards

Pierre-Yves Ritschard

Piotr Roszatycki

Quentin Carbonneaux

Rafal Pocztarski

Randal Schwartz

Richard Elberger

Rick Delaney

Robert Hicks

Robin Lee

Roland Lammel

Roy Storey

Ryan Jendoubi

Sascha Kiefer

Scott Wiersdorf

Sergey Zasenko

Simon Bertrang

Simone Tampieri

Shu Cho

Skye Shaw

Stanis Trendelenburg

Steffen Ullrich

Stephane Este-Gracias

Steve Atkins

Tatsuhiko Miyagawa

Terrence Brannon

Tianon Gravi

Tomas Znamenacek

Ulrich Habel

Ulrich Kautz

Uwe Voelker

Viacheslav Tykhanovskyi

Victor Engmark

Viliam Pucik

Wes Cravens

Yaroslav Korshak

Yuki Kimoto

Zak B. Elep

Zoffix Znet


Copyright (C) 2008-2016, Sebastian Riedel and others.

This program is free software, you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the Artistic License version 2.0.