 powl(1) power function

Other Alias

pow, powf

## SYNOPSIS

#include <math.h>

double pow(double x, double y);
float powf(float
x, float y);
long double powl(long double
x, long double y);

## DESCRIPTION

These functions shall compute the value of x raised to the power y, x**y. If x is negative, the application shall ensure that y is an integer value.

An application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to zero and call feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions. On return, if errno is non-zero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID | FE_DIVBYZERO | FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW) is non-zero, an error has occurred.

## RETURN VALUE

Upon successful completion, these functions shall return the value of x raised to the power y.

For finite values of x < 0, and finite non-integer values of y, a domain error shall occur and  either a NaN (if representable), or an implementation-defined value shall be returned.

If the correct value would cause overflow, a range error shall occur and pow(), powf(), and powl() shall return ±HUGE_VAL, ±HUGE_VALF, and ±HUGE_VALL, respectively, with the same sign as the correct value of the function.

If the correct value would cause underflow, and is not representable, a range error may occur, and  either 0.0 (if supported), or  an implementation-defined value shall be returned.

If x or y is a NaN, a NaN shall be returned (unless specified elsewhere in this description).

For any value of y (including NaN), if x is +1, 1.0 shall be returned.

For any value of x (including NaN), if y is ±0, 1.0 shall be returned.

For any odd integer value of y > 0, if x is ±0, ±0 shall be returned.

For y > 0 and not an odd integer, if x is ±0, +0 shall be returned.

If x is -1, and y is ±Inf, 1.0 shall be returned.

For |x| < 1, if y is -Inf, +Inf shall be returned.

For |x| > 1, if y is -Inf, +0 shall be returned.

For |x| < 1, if y is +Inf, +0 shall be returned.

For |x| > 1, if y is +Inf, +Inf shall be returned.

For y an odd integer < 0, if x is -Inf, -0 shall be returned.

For y < 0 and not an odd integer, if x is -Inf, +0 shall be returned.

For y an odd integer > 0, if x is -Inf, -Inf shall be returned.

For y > 0 and not an odd integer, if x is -Inf, +Inf shall be returned.

For y < 0, if x is +Inf, +0 shall be returned.

For y > 0, if x is +Inf, +Inf shall be returned.

For y an odd integer < 0, if x is ±0, a pole error shall occur and ±HUGE_VAL, ±HUGE_VALF, and ±HUGE_VALL shall be returned for pow(), powf(), and powl(), respectively.

For y < 0 and not an odd integer, if x is ±0, a pole error shall occur and HUGE_VAL, HUGE_VALF, and HUGE_VALL shall be returned for pow(), powf(), and powl(), respectively.

If the correct value would cause underflow, and is representable, a range error may occur and the correct value shall be returned.

## ERRORS

These functions shall fail if:

Domain Error
The value of x is negative and y is a finite non-integer.

If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [EDOM]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the invalid floating-point exception shall be raised.

Pole Error
The value of x is zero and y is negative.

If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the divide-by-zero floating-point exception shall be raised.

Range Error
The result overflows.

If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the overflow floating-point exception shall be raised.

These functions may fail if:

Range Error
The result underflows.

If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the underflow floating-point exception shall be raised.

The following sections are informative.

None.

## APPLICATION USAGE

On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other, but at least one of them must be non-zero.

None.

None.