Text::Typography(3) Markup ASCII text with correct typography for HTML


use Text::Typography qw(typography);

print typography($text);


This module is a thin wrapper for John Gruber's SmartyPants plugin for various CMSs.

SmartyPants is a web publishing utility that translates plain ASCII punctuation characters into ``smart'' typographic punctuation HTML entities. SmartyPants can perform the following transformations:

  • Straight quotes ( `` and ' ) into ''curly" quote HTML entities
  • Backticks-style quotes (``like this'') into ``curly'' quote HTML entities
  • Dashes ("--" and "---") into en- and em-dash entities
  • Three consecutive dots ("...") into an ellipsis entity

SmartyPants does not modify characters within "<pre>", "<code>", "<kbd>", "<script>", or "<math>" tag blocks. Typically, these tags are used to display text where smart quotes and other ``smart punctuation'' would not be appropriate, such as source code or example markup.

typography($text[, $attributes])

Returns a string marked up with the proper HTML entities for proper typography.

For fine grain control over what gets converted, use the $attributes option. The default value is 3.

The following numeric values set a group of options:

    0 : do nothing
    1 : set all
    2 : set all, using old school en- and em- dash shortcuts (-- and ---)
    3 : set all, using inverted old school en- and em- dash shortcuts (--- and --)

For even finer control, specify a string of one or more of the following characters:

    q : quotes
    b : backtick quotes (``double'' only)
    B : backtick quotes (``double'' and `single')
    d : dashes
    D : old school dashes
    i : inverted old school dashes
    e : ellipses
    w : convert &quot; entities to " for Dreamweaver users

Backslash Escapes

If you need to use literal straight quotes (or plain hyphens and periods), SmartyPants accepts the following backslash escape sequences to force non-smart punctuation. It does so by transforming the escape sequence into a decimal-encoded HTML entity:

              Escape  Value  Character
              ------  -----  ---------
                \\    &#92;    \
                \"    &#34;    "
                \'    &#39;    '
                \.    &#46;    .
                \-    &#45;    -
                \`    &#96;    `

This is useful, for example, when you want to use straight quotes as foot and inch marks: 6'2`` tall; a 17'' iMac.

Algorithmic Shortcomings

One situation in which quotes will get curled the wrong way is when apostrophes are used at the start of leading contractions. For example:

    'Twas the night before Christmas.

In the case above, SmartyPants will turn the apostrophe into an opening single-quote, when in fact it should be a closing one. I don't think this problem can be solved in the general case --- every word processor I've tried gets this wrong as well. In such cases, it's best to use the proper HTML entity for closing single-quotes ("&#8217;") by hand.


Thomas Sibley created this module using the code from the SmartyPants CMS plugin by John Gruber (<http://daringfireball.net/projects/smartypants/>).


    Copyright (c) 2003 John Gruber
    All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

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