SYNOPSIS
use Math::PlanePath::ImaginaryBase;
my $path = Math::PlanePath::ImaginaryBase>new (radix => 4);
my ($x, $y) = $path>n_to_xy (123);
DESCRIPTION
This is a halfplane variation on the "ImaginaryBase" path.
5455 5051 6263 5859 2223 1819 3031 2627 3 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 5253 4849 6061 5657 2021 1617 2829 2425 2 3839 3435 4647 4243 67 23 1415 1011 1 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 3637 3233 4445 4041 45 01 1213 89 < Y=0  10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 X=0 1 2 3 4 5
The pattern can be seen by dividing into blocks,
++  22 23 18 19 30 31 26 27     20 21 16 17 28 29 24 25  ++++  6 7  2 3  14 15 10 11   +++   4 5  0  1  12 13 8 9  < Y=0 +++++ ^ X=0
N=0 is at the origin, then N=1 replicates it to the right. Those two repeat above as N=2 and N=3. Then that 2x2 repeats to the left as N=4 to N=7, then 4x2 repeats to the right as N=8 to N=15, and 8x2 above as N=16 to N=31, etc. The replications are successively to the right, above, left. The relative layout within a replication is unchanged.
This is similar to the "ImaginaryBase", but where it repeats in 4 directions there's just 3 directions here. The "ZOrderCurve" is a 2 direction replication.
Radix
The "radix" parameter controls the radix used to break N into X,Y. For example "radix => 4" gives 4x4 blocks, with radix1 replications of the preceding level at each stage.
radix => 4 60 61 62 63 44 45 46 47 28 29 30 31 12 13 14 15 3 56 57 58 59 40 41 42 43 24 25 26 27 8 9 10 11 2 52 53 54 55 36 37 38 39 20 21 22 23 4 5 6 7 1 48 49 50 51 32 33 34 35 16 17 18 19 0 1 2 3 < Y=0 ^ 121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 X=0 1 2 3
Notice for X negative the parts replicate successively towards infinity, so the block N=16 to N=31 is first at X=4, then N=32 at X=8, N=48 at X=12, and N=64 at X=16 (not shown).
Digit Order
The "digit_order" parameter controls the order digits from N are applied to X and Y. The default above is ``XYX'' so the replications go X then Y then negative X.``XXY'' goes to negative X before Y, so N=2,N=3 goes to negative X before repeating N=4 to N=7 in the Y direction.
digit_order => "XXY" 38 39 36 37 46 47 44 45 34 35 32 33 42 43 40 41 6 7 4 5 14 15 12 13 2 3 0 1 10 11 8 9 ^ 2 1 X=0 1 2 3 4 5
The further options are as follows, for six permutations of each 3 digits from N.
digit_order => "YXX" digit_order => "XnYX" 38 39 36 37 46 47 44 45 19 23 18 22 51 55 50 54 34 35 32 33 42 43 40 41 17 21 16 20 49 53 48 52 6 7 4 5 14 15 12 13 3 7 2 6 35 39 34 38 2 3 0 1 10 11 8 9 1 5 0 4 33 37 32 36 digit_order => "XnXY" digit_order => "YXnX" 37 39 36 38 53 55 52 54 11 15 9 13 43 47 41 45 33 35 32 34 49 51 48 50 10 14 8 12 42 46 40 44 5 7 4 6 21 23 20 22 3 7 1 5 35 39 33 37 1 3 0 2 17 19 16 18 2 6 0 4 34 38 32 36
``Xn'' means the X negative direction. It's still spaced 2 apart (or whatever radix), so the result is not simply a X,Y.
Axis Values
N=0,1,4,5,8,9,etc on the X axis (positive and negative) are those integers with a 0 at every third bit starting from the second least significant bit. This is simply demanding that the bits going to the Y coordinate must be 0.
X axis Ns = binary ...__0__0__0_ with _ either 0 or 1 in octal, digits 0,1,4,5 only
N=0,1,8,9,etc on the X positive axis have the highest 1bit in the first slot of a 3bit group. Or N=0,4,5,etc on the X negative axis have the high 1 bit in the third slot,
X pos Ns = binary 1_0__0__0...0__0__0_ X neg Ns = binary 10__0__0__0...0__0__0_ ^^^ three bit group X pos Ns in octal have high octal digit 1 X neg Ns in octal high octal digit 4 or 5
N=0,2,16,18,etc on the Y axis are conversely those integers with a 0 in two of each three bits, demanding the bits going to the X coordinate must be 0.
Y axis Ns = binary ..._00_00_00_0 with _ either 0 or 1 in octal has digits 0,2 only
For a radix other than binary the pattern is the same. Each ``_'' is any digit of the given radix, and each 0 must be 0. The high 1 bit for X positive and negative become a high nonzero digit.
Level Ranges
Because the X direction replicates twice for each once in the Y direction the width grows at twice the rate, so after each 3 replications
width = height*height
For this reason N values for a given Y grow quite rapidly.
Proth Numbers
The Proth numbers, k*2^n+1 for k<2^n, fall in columns on the path.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  31 23 15 7 31 0 3 5 9 17 25 33
The height of the column is from the zeros in X ending binary ...1000..0001 since this limits the ``k'' part of the Proth numbers which can have N ending suitably. Or for X negative ending ...10111...11.
FUNCTIONS
See ``FUNCTIONS'' in Math::PlanePath for behaviour common to all path classes. "$path = Math::PlanePath::ImaginaryBase>new ()"
 "$path = Math::PlanePath::ImaginaryBase>new (radix => $r, digit_order => $str)"

Create and return a new path object. The choices for "digit_order" are
"XYX" "XXY" "YXX" "XnYX" "XnXY" "YXnX"
 "($x,$y) = $path>n_to_xy ($n)"
 Return the X,Y coordinates of point number $n on the path. Points begin at 0 and if "$n < 0" then the return is an empty list.
 "($n_lo, $n_hi) = $path>rect_to_n_range ($x1,$y1, $x2,$y2)"
 The returned range is exact, meaning $n_lo and $n_hi are the smallest and biggest in the rectangle.
Level Methods
 "($n_lo, $n_hi) = $path>level_to_n_range($level)"
 Return "(0, $radix**$level  1)".
LICENSE
Copyright 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 Kevin RydeThis file is part of MathPlanePath.
MathPlanePath is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option) any later version.
MathPlanePath is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with MathPlanePath. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.